Transglutaminase 2 is expressed and active on the surface of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages.
ABSTRACT The multifunctional enzyme, transglutaminase 2 (TG2), can be found intracellularly, in the extracellular matrix and on the cell surface. Cell surface TG2 (csTG2) could not be detected by TG2-specific antibodies or autoantibodies on immunocompetent cells. A supposedly csTG2-specific antibody, 6B9, was recently shown to actually react with CD44. Though the importance of TG2-mediated deamidation of gluten in the pathogenesis of celiac disease has been well recognized, it is not known in which intestinal cells or cell compartment the deamidation occurs. Duodenal dendritic cells (DCs) can be directly involved in gluten-reactive T-cell activation. Here we use blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iDC) and macrophages (MPhi) as a model for intestinal antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and show that they contain large amounts of TG2. We found that TG100, a commercial TG2-specific monoclonal antibody can recognize TG2 on the surface of these cells, that is monocyte-derived APCs express surface-associated TG2. TG2 expression was found on the surface of individual tunica propria cells in frozen small bowel tissue sections from both normal and celiac subjects. We also demonstrate that the pool of TG2 on the surface of iDCs can be catalytically active, hence it might directly be involved in the deamidation of gliadin peptides. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased the level of TG2 on the surface of maturing DCs, supporting the hypothesis that an unspecific inflammatory process in the gut may expose more transglutaminase activity.
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ABSTRACT: Infiltration of leukocytes is a major pathological event in white matter lesion formation in the brain of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In grey matter lesions, less infiltration of these cells occur, but microglial activation is present. Thus far, the interaction of β-integrins with extracellular matrix proteins, e.g. fibronectin, is considered to be of importance for the influx of immune cells. Recent in vitro studies indicate a possible role for the enzyme tissue Transglutaminase (TG2) in mediating cell adhesion and migration. In the present study we questioned whether TG2 is present in white and grey matter lesions observed in the marmoset model for MS. To this end, immunohistochemical studies were performed. We observed that TG2, expressed by infiltrating monocytes in white matter lesions co-expressed β1-integrin and is located in close apposition to deposited fibronectin. These data suggest an important role for TG2 in the adhesion and migration of infiltrating monocytes during white matter lesion formation. Moreover, in grey matter lesions, TG2 is mainly present in microglial cells together with some β1-integrin, whereas fibronectin is absent in these lesions. These data imply an alternative role for microglial-derived TG2 in grey matter lesions, e.g. cell proliferation. Further research should clarify the functional role of TG2 in monocytes or microglial cells in MS lesion formation.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e100574. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitous enzyme involved in diverse biological processes. Recently, its function in adaptive immune responses has begun to emerge. Its presence and functions in B cells and T cells, for example, have been reported. However, those in dendritic cells (DCs), the principal antigen-presenting cells, are as yet unexplored in murine system. In this study, we first investigated the expression of TG2 in murine bone marrow-derived DCs, and then compared the functioning of these cells in the presence or absence of this enzyme using wild-type (WT) and TG2(-/-) mice. We found that the WT DCs expressed TG2 both in the cytoplasm and on the cell surface, both of which were elevated after LPS stimulation. Unexpectedly, between WT and TG2(-/-) DCs, there were no remarkable differences in cytokine secretion, IL-10 and IL-12, and neither in the expression of surface molecules CD80, CD86, and MHC II, excepting a moderate decrease of CD40 expression on the TG2(-/-) DCs. However, when T cells were stimulated with TG2(-/-) DCs, they showed decreased levels of proliferation, CD69 and CD25 expression, and IFN-γ secretion. The addition of anti-TG2 antibody to the WT DC-T cell co-culture resulted in decreased T cell activation. By immunofluorescence staining, TG2 was observed at DC-T cell interface (contact point). Taken together, we propose that TG2 on the surface of DCs modulates the DC-T cell interaction.Cellular Immunology 03/2014; 289(1-2):55-62. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional protein that contributes to inflammatory disease when aberrantly expressed. Although macrophages express TG2, the factor stimulating TG2 expression remains poorly characterized in these cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of the stress-related catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline on macrophage expression of TG2 in RAW264.7 murine macrophages and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Treatment with adrenaline markedly increased TG2 mRNA expression and increased TG2 protein levels. While the β2-adrenoceptor-selective antagonist ICI 118,551 completely blocked adrenaline-induced TG2 mRNA expression, the β2-adrenoceptor specific agonist salmeterol increased TG2 expression. Noradrenaline also increased TG2 mRNA expression at higher doses than the effective doses of adrenaline. The effect of adrenaline on TG2 mRNA expression was mimicked by treatment with the membrane-permeable cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP. Thus, increased intracellular cAMP following stimulation of β2-adrenoceptors appeared to be responsible for adrenaline-induced TG2 expression. Because stress events activate the sympathetic nervous system and result in secretion of the catecholamines, adrenoceptor-mediated increase in macrophage TG2 expression might be associated with stress-related inflammatory disorders.Immunobiology 01/2014; · 2.81 Impact Factor