Transglutaminase 2 is expressed and active on the surface of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages.
ABSTRACT The multifunctional enzyme, transglutaminase 2 (TG2), can be found intracellularly, in the extracellular matrix and on the cell surface. Cell surface TG2 (csTG2) could not be detected by TG2-specific antibodies or autoantibodies on immunocompetent cells. A supposedly csTG2-specific antibody, 6B9, was recently shown to actually react with CD44. Though the importance of TG2-mediated deamidation of gluten in the pathogenesis of celiac disease has been well recognized, it is not known in which intestinal cells or cell compartment the deamidation occurs. Duodenal dendritic cells (DCs) can be directly involved in gluten-reactive T-cell activation. Here we use blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iDC) and macrophages (MPhi) as a model for intestinal antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and show that they contain large amounts of TG2. We found that TG100, a commercial TG2-specific monoclonal antibody can recognize TG2 on the surface of these cells, that is monocyte-derived APCs express surface-associated TG2. TG2 expression was found on the surface of individual tunica propria cells in frozen small bowel tissue sections from both normal and celiac subjects. We also demonstrate that the pool of TG2 on the surface of iDCs can be catalytically active, hence it might directly be involved in the deamidation of gliadin peptides. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased the level of TG2 on the surface of maturing DCs, supporting the hypothesis that an unspecific inflammatory process in the gut may expose more transglutaminase activity.
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ABSTRACT: The action of tissue Transglutaminase (TGase) on specific protein-bound glutamine residues plays a critical role in numerous biological processes. Here we provide evidence for a new role of this enzyme in the common, HLA-DQ2 (and DQ8) associated enteropathy, celiac disease (CD). The intestinal inflammation in CD is precipitated by exposure to wheat gliadin in the diet and is associated with increased mucosal activity of TGase. This enzyme has also been identified as the main target for CD-associated anti-endomysium autoantibodies, and is known to accept gliadin as one of its few substrates. We have examined the possibility that TGase could be involved in modulating the reactivity of gliadin specific T cells. This could establish a link between previous reports of the role of TGase in CD and the prevailing view of CD as a T-cell mediated disorder. We found a specific effect of TGase on T-cell recognition of gliadin. This effect was limited to gliadin-specific T cells isolated from intestinal CD lesions. We demonstrate that TGase mediates its effect through an ordered and specific deamidation of gliadins. This deamidation creates an epitope that binds efficiently to DQ2 and is recognized by gut-derived T cells. Generation of epitopes by enzymatic modification is a new mechanism that may be relevant for breaking of tolerance and initiation of autoimmune disease.Nature Medicine 07/1998; 4(6):713-7. · 22.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Promyelocytic NB4 leukemia cells undergo differentiation to granulocytes following retinoic acid treatment. Here we report that tissue transglutaminase (TG2), a protein cross-linking enzyme, was induced, then partially translocated into the nucleus, and became strongly associated with the chromatin during the differentiation process. The transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-link content of both the cytosolic and the nuclear protein fractions increased while NB4 cells underwent cellular maturation. Inhibition of cross-linking activity of TG2 by monodansylcadaverin in these cells led to diminished nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) positivity, production of less superoxide anion, and decreased expression of GP91PHOX, the membrane-associated subunit of NADPH oxidase. Neutrophils isolated from TG2(-/-) mice showed diminished NBT reduction capacity, reduced superoxide anion formation, and down-regulation of the gp91phox subunit of NADPH oxidase, compared with wild-type cells. It was also observed that TG2(-/-) mice exhibited increased neutrophil phagocytic activity, but had attenuated neutrophil chemotaxis and impaired neutrophil extravasation with higher neutrophil counts in their circulation during yeast extract-induced peritonitis. These results clearly suggest that TG2 may modulate the expression of genes related to neutrophil functions and is involved in several intracellular and extracellular functions of extravasating neutrophil.Blood 10/2006; 108(6):2045-54. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Celiac disease is a small intestine inflammatory disorder with multiple organ involvement, sustained by an inappropriate immune response to dietary gluten. Anti-transglutaminase antibodies are a typical serological marker in patients with active disease, and may disappear during a gluten-free diet treatment. Involvement of infectious agents and innate immunity has been suggested but never proven. Molecular mimicry is one of the mechanisms that links infection and autoimmunity. In our attempt to clarify the pathogenesis of celiac disease, we screened a random peptide library with pooled sera of patients affected by active disease after a pre-screening with the sera of the same patients on a gluten-free diet. We identified a peptide recognized by serum immunoglobulins of patients with active disease, but not by those of patients on a gluten-free diet. This peptide shares homology with the rotavirus major neutralizing protein VP-7 and with the self-antigens tissue transglutaminase, human heat shock protein 60, desmoglein 1, and Toll-like receptor 4. We show that antibodies against the peptide affinity-purified from the sera of patients with active disease recognize the viral product and self-antigens in ELISA and Western blot. These antibodies were able to induce increased epithelial cell permeability evaluated by transepithelial flux of [(3)H] mannitol in the T84 human intestinal epithelial cell line. Finally, the purified antibodies induced monocyte activation upon binding Toll-like receptor 4, evaluated both by surface expression of activation markers and by production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our findings show that in active celiac disease, a subset of anti-transglutaminase IgA antibodies recognize the viral protein VP-7, suggesting a possible involvement of rotavirus infection in the pathogenesis of the disease, through a mechanism of molecular mimicry. Moreover, such antibodies recognize self-antigens and are functionally active, able to increase intestinal permeability and induce monocyte activation. We therefore provide evidence for the involvement of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of celiac disease through a previously unknown mechanism of engagement of Toll-like receptor 4.PLoS Medicine 10/2006; 3(9):e358. · 15.25 Impact Factor