Influence on energy kinetics and histology of different preservation solutions seen during cold ischemia in the liver.
ABSTRACT Cold flush preservation prolongs tissue viability during ischemia. However, there is little understanding of the effects of various preservation fluids on events during this period. A study of cold ischemia in rat livers was undertaken to compare biochemical and histological changes over time, using three preservation solutions: University of Wisconsin (UW), histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK), and Leeds solution (LS) under development at our institution. Leeds solution is a phosphate-based sucrose solution that like UW contains the impermeant lactobionate and the metabolite allopurinol (1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one) which acts as a competitive inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, stopping the breakdown of hypoxanthine to xanthine by oxidizing it to alloxanthine, inhibiting both the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and the conversion of xanthine to uric acid.
At various time points, samples were analyzed for adenosine triphospate (ATP) and metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography as well as for histological changes.
In all livers, ATP, ADP, and AMP degraded over 4 hours. In UW and LS groups, degradation beyond hypoxanthine was halted, and it continued in the HTK group. This blockade led to a significant reduction in the accumulation of xanthine and uric acid. Histological analysis showed protected architecture and maintenance of reticulin scaffolds in the UW and LS groups, whereas tissue breakdown was seen from earlier time points in the HTK group. Additionally, throughout ischemia, signs of pathological injury were more pronounced with UW- than with LS-preserved tissue.
These results implied that cold ischemia in the liver is characterized by dynamic biochemical changes coincident with pathological injury which are initiated from the time of organ perfusion and influenced by the choice of the perfusion fluid. Allopurinol in UW and LS appears to be critical. We hypothesized that it may also affect the degree of subsequent reperfusion injury. The data supported the assertion that LS offerred improved preservation over UW, adding to the impetus to shorten ischemic times in clinical transplantation.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate hepatic content of adenine nucleotides and their degradation products in non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) pigs and its relationship with recipient survival. Thirty animals were transplanted with an allograft from NHBDs. After warm ischemia (WI) time (20, 30, or 40 min), cardiopulmonary bypass and normothermic recirculation (NR) were run for 30 min. Afterward, the animals were cooled to 15 degrees C and liver procurement was performed. Survival rate was 100% in the 20WI, 70% in the 30WI, and 50% in the 40WI. Livers from non-surviving animals had higher levels of xanthine after NR than livers from surviving animals. Logistic regression analysis revealed that xanthine at the end of NR was the only variable able to predict survival with a calculated sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 60%. Prolongation of warm ischemic period leaded to a greater xanthine accumulation as well as increased plasma alpha-glutathione S-transferase levels at reperfusion. Xanthine at NR and alpha-glutathione S-transferase at reperfusion significantly correlated, indicating that donor xanthine contributes to some extent to the severity of the lesion by ischemia-reperfusion. It is suggested that xanthine content in the donor is able to predict survival after transplantation. Xanthine is significantly involved in the hepatic lesion elicited by warm ischemia and subsequent ischemia-reperfusion associated to liver transplantation from a NHBD.Transplantation 06/2001; 71(9):1232-7. · 3.78 Impact Factor
- Transplantation Proceedings 01/1997; 29(1-2):355-6. · 0.95 Impact Factor
- Transplantation Proceedings 01/2001; 33(7-8):3709-11. · 0.95 Impact Factor