Cold flush preservation prolongs tissue viability during ischemia. However, there is little understanding of the effects of various preservation fluids on events during this period. A study of cold ischemia in rat livers was undertaken to compare biochemical and histological changes over time, using three preservation solutions: University of Wisconsin (UW), histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK), and Leeds solution (LS) under development at our institution. Leeds solution is a phosphate-based sucrose solution that like UW contains the impermeant lactobionate and the metabolite allopurinol (1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one) which acts as a competitive inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, stopping the breakdown of hypoxanthine to xanthine by oxidizing it to alloxanthine, inhibiting both the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and the conversion of xanthine to uric acid.
At various time points, samples were analyzed for adenosine triphospate (ATP) and metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography as well as for histological changes.
In all livers, ATP, ADP, and AMP degraded over 4 hours. In UW and LS groups, degradation beyond hypoxanthine was halted, and it continued in the HTK group. This blockade led to a significant reduction in the accumulation of xanthine and uric acid. Histological analysis showed protected architecture and maintenance of reticulin scaffolds in the UW and LS groups, whereas tissue breakdown was seen from earlier time points in the HTK group. Additionally, throughout ischemia, signs of pathological injury were more pronounced with UW- than with LS-preserved tissue.
These results implied that cold ischemia in the liver is characterized by dynamic biochemical changes coincident with pathological injury which are initiated from the time of organ perfusion and influenced by the choice of the perfusion fluid. Allopurinol in UW and LS appears to be critical. We hypothesized that it may also affect the degree of subsequent reperfusion injury. The data supported the assertion that LS offerred improved preservation over UW, adding to the impetus to shorten ischemic times in clinical transplantation.
"Additionally, due to the ischemia, the endothelial cells start to die, triggering hepatic sinusoidal dilatation. The glycogen stored in the tissue is consumed by the living cells to obtain additional energy during this preservation period, resulting in a decrease in the glycogen level of tissue (Corps et al., 2009; Jain et al., 2004; Natori et al., 1999). All these changes in histology of liver can be detected via specialized stains and quantified by image processing tools under light microscope. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to gain further insight into the mechanisms of tissue damage during the progression of liver diseases as well as the liver preservation for transplantation, an improved understanding of the relation between the mechanical and histological properties of liver is necessary. We suggest that this relation can only be established truly if the changes in the states of those properties are investigated dynamically as a function of post mortem time. In this regard, we first perform mechanical characterization experiments on three bovine livers to investigate the changes in gross mechanical properties (stiffness, viscosity, and fracture toughness) for the preservation periods of 5, 11, 17, 29, 41 and 53h after harvesting. Then, the histological examination is performed on the samples taken from the same livers to investigate the changes in apoptotic cell count, collagen accumulation, sinusoidal dilatation, and glycogen deposition as a function of the same preservation periods. Finally, the correlation between the mechanical and histological properties is investigated via the Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation method. The results of our study show that stiffness, viscosity, and fracture toughness of bovine liver increase as the preservation period is increased. These macroscopic changes are very strongly correlated with the increase in collagen accumulation and decrease in deposited glycogen level at the microscopic level. Also, we observe that the largest changes in mechanical and histological properties occur after the first 11-17h of preservation.
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 01/2014; 29:403-416. DOI:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.09.016 · 3.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An isolated perfused rat liver model was used to investigate biochemical and histologic changes during 2 hours of reperfusion after 24 hours of cold storage to compare Leeds solution (LS) with University of Wisconsin solution (UW). Compared with livers stored in UW, those perfused with LS showed significantly higher bile flow and lower enzyme production (P < .05 by 1-way analysis of variance). For example, after 120 minutes, alanine aminotransferase results were: LS 38.9 U/L vs UW 66.8 U/L and bile flows were LS 10.3 μg/15 min/g liver vs UW 9.2 μg/15 min/g liver. Histologically the reticulin breakdown was greater and its reformation slower in UW-preserved livers. Liver tissue was viable in both groups, as shown by the increased glycogen content after reperfusion in both groups, but seen at a higher rate among LS, perfused livers. In conclusion, LS compared favorably with UW to prevent ischemic damage and so could offer an alternative perfusion medium to UW.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY: Organ transplantation has developed over the past 50 years to reach the sophisticated and integrated clinical service of today through several advances in science. One of the most important of these has been the ability to apply organ preservation protocols to deliver donor organs of high quality, via a network of organ exchange to match the most suitable recipient patient to the best available organ, capable of rapid resumption of life-sustaining function in the recipient patient. This has only been possible by amassing a good understanding of the potential effects of hypoxic injury on donated organs, and how to prevent these by applying organ preservation. This review sets out the history of organ preservation, how applications of hypothermia have become central to the process, and what the current status is for the range of solid organs commonly transplanted. The science of organ preservation is constantly being updated with new knowledge and ideas, and the review also discusses what innovations are coming close to clinical reality to meet the growing demands for high quality organs in transplantation over the next few years.
Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy 04/2011; 38(2):125-142. DOI:10.1159/000327033 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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