Medication Errors Recovered by Emergency Department Pharmacists
ABSTRACT We assess the impact of emergency department (ED) pharmacists on reducing potentially harmful medication errors.
We conducted this observational study in 4 academic EDs. Trained pharmacy residents observed a convenience sample of ED pharmacists' activities. The primary outcome was medication errors recovered by pharmacists, including errors intercepted before reaching the patient (near miss or potential adverse drug event), caught after reaching the patient but before causing harm (mitigated adverse drug event), or caught after some harm but before further or worsening harm (ameliorated adverse drug event). Pairs of physician and pharmacist reviewers confirmed recovered medication errors and assessed their potential for harm. Observers were unblinded and clinical outcomes were not evaluated.
We conducted 226 observation sessions spanning 787 hours and observed pharmacists reviewing 17,320 medications ordered or administered to 6,471 patients. We identified 504 recovered medication errors, or 7.8 per 100 patients and 2.9 per 100 medications. Most of the recovered medication errors were intercepted potential adverse drug events (90.3%), with fewer mitigated adverse drug events (3.9%) and ameliorated adverse drug events (0.2%). The potential severities of the recovered errors were most often serious (47.8%) or significant (36.2%). The most common medication classes associated with recovered medication errors were antimicrobial agents (32.1%), central nervous system agents (16.2%), and anticoagulant and thrombolytic agents (14.1%). The most common error types were dosing errors, drug omission, and wrong frequency errors.
ED pharmacists can identify and prevent potentially harmful medication errors. Controlled trials are necessary to determine the net costs and benefits of ED pharmacist staffing on safety, quality, and costs, especially important considerations for smaller EDs and pharmacy departments.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of our study was to estimate the incidence of prescribing medication errors specifically made by a trainee and identify factors associated with these errors during the simulated resuscitation of a critically ill child.The western journal of emergency medicine 07/2014; 15(4):486-90. DOI:10.5811/westjem.2014.2.17922
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ABSTRACT: Experts suggest family engagement in care can improve safety for hospitalized children. Family-centered rounds (FCRs) can offer families the opportunity to participate in error recovery related to children's medications. The objective of this study was to describe family-initiated dialogue about medications and health care team responses to this dialogue during FCR to understand the potential for FCR to foster safe medication use. FCR were video-recorded daily for 150 hospitalized children. Coders sorted family-initiated medication dialogue into mutually exclusive categories, reflecting place of administration, therapeutic class, topic, and health care team responses. Health care team responses were coded to reflect intent, actions taken by the team, and appropriateness of any changes. Eighty-three (55%) of the 150 families raised 318 medication topics during 347 FCR. Most family-initiated dialogue focused on inpatient medications (65%), with home medications comprising 35%. Anti-infectives (31%), analgesics (14%), and corticosteroids (11%) were the most commonly discussed medications. The most common medication topics raised by families were scheduling (24%) and adverse drug reactions (11%). Although most health care team responses were provision of information (74%), appropriate changes to the child's medications occurred in response to 8% of family-initiated dialogue, with most changes preventing or addressing adverse drug reactions or scheduling issues. Most families initiated dialogue regarding medications during FCRs, including both inpatient and home medications. They raised topics that altered treatment and were important for medication safety, adherence, and satisfaction. Study findings suggest specific medication topics that health care teams can anticipate addressing during FCR. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.Pediatrics 12/2014; 135(1). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-3885 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted with the purpose of determining the frequency of medication errors (MEs) occurring in tertiary care emergency department (ED) of a large academic hospital in Iran. The incidence of MEs was determined through the disguised direct observation method conducted by a trained observer. A total of 1,031 medication doses administered to 202 patients admitted to the tertiary care ED were observed over a course of 54 6-hour shifts. Following collection of the data and analysis of the errors with the assistance of a clinical pharmacist, frequency of errors in the different stages was reported and analyzed in SPSS-21 software. For the 202 patients and the 1,031 medication doses evaluated in the present study, 707 (68.5%) MEs were recorded in total. In other words, 3.5 errors per patient and almost 0.69 errors per medication are reported to have occurred, with the highest frequency of errors pertaining to cardiovascular (27.2%) and antimicrobial (23.6%) medications. The highest rate of errors occurred during the administration phase of the medication use process with a share of 37.6%, followed by errors of prescription and transcription with a share of 21.1% and 10% of errors, respectively. Omission (7.6%) and wrong time error (4.4%) were the most frequent administration errors. The less-experienced nurses (P=0.04), higher patient-to-nurse ratio (P=0.017), and the morning shifts (P=0.035) were positively related to administration errors. Administration errors marked the highest share of MEs occurring in the different medication use processes. Increasing the number of nurses and employing the more experienced of them in EDs can help reduce nursing errors. Addressing the shortcomings with further research should result in reduction of MEs in EDs.Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety 01/2014; 6:179-84. DOI:10.2147/DHPS.S75223