Induction of angiogenic chemokine CCL2 by human herpesvirus 8 chemokine receptor.
ABSTRACT Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an endothelial cell lesion believed to be initiated and driven primarily by cytokine dysregulation. Among the viral proteins suspected as contributing to viral pathogenesis is the lytically expressed viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR), which can induce various cellular cytokines. CC ligand-2 (CCL2/MCP-1) is a vGPCR-regulated angiogenic chemokine found at elevated levels in KS lesions and induced by HHV-8 infection of endothelial cells. Here we show that vGPCR induces CCL2 in endothelial cells via activation of C/EBPbeta and that vGPCR and C/EBPbeta are critical components of CCL2 induction by HHV-8 infection of endothelial cultures. To our knowledge, this is the first report of vGPCR-mediated cytokine induction, and its characterization, in the context of virus infection. Our results identify a mechanism by which vGPCR can contribute, in a host cell shutoff-independent manner, to viral pathogenesis.
Article: Highly selective escape from KSHV-mediated host mRNA shutoff and its implications for viral pathogenesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic infection, many virus-encoded signaling molecules (e.g., viral G protein-coupled receptor [vGPCR]) are produced that can induce host gene expression in transiently transfected cells, and roles for such induced host genes have been posited in KS pathogenesis. However, we have recently found that host gene expression is strongly inhibited by 10-12 h after lytic reactivation of KSHV, raising the question of whether and to what extent de novo host gene expression induced by viral signaling molecules can proceed during the lytic cycle. Here, we show by microarray analysis that expression of most vGPCR target genes is drastically curtailed by this host shutoff. However, rare cellular genes can escape the host shutoff and are potently up-regulated during lytic KSHV growth. Prominent among these is human interleukin-6, whose striking induction may contribute to the overexpression of this cytokine in several disease states linked to KSHV infection.Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/2004; 200(3):391-8. · 13.85 Impact Factor
Article: Differences in time of virus appearance in the blood and virus-specific immune responses in intravenous and intrarectal primary SIV<sub>mac251</sub> infection of rhesus macaques; a pilot study[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Background HIV-I can be transmitted by intravenous inoculation of contaminated blood or blood product or sexually through mucosal surfaces. Here we performed a pilot study in the SIV<sub>mac251</sub> macaque model to address whether the route of viral entry influences the kinetics of the appearance and the size of virus-specific immune in different tissue compartments. Methods For this purpose, of 2 genetically defined Mamu-A*01-positive macaques, 1 was exposed intravenously and the other intrarectally to the same SIV<sub>mac251</sub> viral stock and virus-specific CD8+ T-cells were measured within the first 12 days of infection in the blood and at day 12 in several tissues following euthanasia. Results Virus-specific CD8+ T-cell responses to Gag, Env, and particularly Tat appeared earlier in the blood of the animal exposed by the mucosal route than in the animal exposed intravenously. The magnitude of these virus-specific responses was consistently higher in the systemic tissues and GALT of the macaque exposed by the intravenous route, suggesting a higher viral burden in the tissues as reflected by the faster appearance of virus in plasma. Differences in the ability of the virus-specific CD8+ T-cells to respond in vitro to specific peptide stimulation were also observed and the greatest proliferative ability was found in the GALT of the animal infected by the intrarectal route. Conclusions These data may suggest that the natural mucosal barrier may delay viral spreading. The consequences of this observation, if confirmed in studies with a larger number of animals, may have implications in vaccine development.BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2001; · 3.12 Impact Factor
Article: An NF-kappaB gene expression signature contributes to Kaposi's sarcoma virus vGPCR-induced direct and paracrine neoplasia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent AIDS-associated malignancy, etiologically linked to the infection with the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8/KSHV). This member of the gamma-herpesviridae family encodes 81 open reading frames, several bearing oncogenic potential. A constitutively active virally encoded G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR) readily induces KS-like lesions when expressed in endothelial cells in vivo, and unmasks the oncogenic potential of other HHV-8 genes in a paracrine fashion. How vGPCR causes endothelial cell transformation is still not fully understood. Using full-genome microarray analysis we show here that the expression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-regulated genes is a prominent feature triggered by vGPCR in cells expressing this viral oncogene and in cells exposed to vGPCR-induced secretions, thus mimicking its paracrine effect. Indeed, vGPCR activates the NF-kappaB pathway potently, and NF-kappaB activation is a hallmark of both human and experimental KS. Of interest, whereas constitutive NF-kappaB signaling is not sufficient to promote endothelial cells transformation, NF-kappaB function is strictly required for vGPCR-induced direct and paracrine neoplasia. Taken together, these results strongly support the role of NF-kappaB regulated genes in KS pathogenesis, thus providing the rationale for the development of novel mechanism-based therapies for this angioproliferative disease.Oncogene 04/2008; 27(13):1844-52. · 6.37 Impact Factor