Perceived body image in men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: correlation of body mass index with the figure rating scale.

Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center, Louisville, KY, USA.
Nutrition Journal (Impact Factor: 2.65). 12/2009; 8:57. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-8-57
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Body mass index (BMI) is often used as an objective surrogate estimate of body fat. Increased BMI is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS) is a subjective measure of body fat, and self-perceptions of body image conceivably impact the development and treatment of T2DM. This study examined the self-perception of body image to various levels of BMI among those with T2DM.
Respondents (n = 13,887) to the US Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD) 2006 survey self-reported their weight and height for BMI calculation. On the gender-specific Stunkard FRS, respondents selected the figure most closely resembling their body image. Spearman correlation was computed between perceived body image and BMI for men and women separately. Student's t-test analysis compared the mean BMI differences between respondents with and without T2DM.
Men with T2DM did not significantly differ from men without diabetes mellitus in mean BMI per body image figure except at the extremes in body figures. Women with T2DM had a significantly higher BMI for the same body figure compared with women without diabetes mellitus for most figures (p < 0.05).
Individuals, particularly women, with T2DM may differ in their perception of body image compared with those without diabetes mellitus. It is unclear if these perceived differences increase the risk of T2DM, or if the diagnosis of T2DM alters body image perceptions.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study explored cross-cultural differences between Japan and Russia in terms of women's body images, proneness to eating disorders, and the effects of dichotomous thinking. Par-ticipants included 419 Japanese and 187 Rus-sian college women who completed the Dicho-tomous Thinking Inventory (DTI), the 26-item ver-sion of the Eating Attitudes Test, and responses regarding nine figures representing female body shapes. The mean age of the participants was 19.8 years, with no significant age differences between the countries. The results showed that Japanese women have leaner ideal body images than Russian women, whereas there were no cross-cultural differences in the participants' real body images. DTI scores among Russian par-ticipants were higher than DTI scores among Japanese participants, which indicated that Rus-sian women think more dichotomously than Ja-panese. Structural equation modeling indicated a significantly negative effect of dichotomous thinking only on real body image in Russia; the ideal body image had greater effects on eating disorder in Russia than in Japan.
    Health. 01/2012; 4:392-399.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Figure rating scales were developed as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women, men, and children. However, it lacks in the literature the validation of the scale for body silhouettes previously adapted. We aimed to obtain evidence for construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents. The study was carried out with adolescent students attending three public schools in an urban region of the municipality of Florianopolis in the State of Santa Catarina (SC). The sample comprised 232 10-19-year-old students, 106 of whom are boys and 126 girls, from the 5th "series" (i.e. year) of Primary School to the 3rd year of Secondary School. Data-gathering involved the application of an instrument containing 8 body figure drawings representing a range of children's and adolescents' body shapes, ranging from very slim (contour 1) to obese (contour 8). Weights and heights were also collected, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated later. BMI was analyzed as a continuous variable, using z-scores, and as a dichotomous categorical variable, representing a diagnosis of nutritional status (normal and overweight including obesity). Results showed that both males and females with larger BMI z-scores chose larger body contours. Girls with higher BMI z-scores also show higher values of body image dissatisfaction. We provided the first evidence of validity for a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents.
    Nutrition Journal 04/2012; 11:24. · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Increased body mass index is associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic diseases, depression, and sexual dysfunction. In obese patients, the perception of an altered body image may influence health and psychologically related behaviors. Furthermore, there is a significant positive relationship between sexual function, sexual satisfaction, and all body image variables. AIM: To evaluate the relationship between body weight, perceived body image, and sexual behavior. METHODS: Ninety women underwent ultrasonographic clitoral volume measurement and color Doppler evaluation of the clitoral and ophthalmic arteries. The subjects filled the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire (MFSQ), the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS), and the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clitoral volume, clitoral and ophthalmic artery pulsatility index (PI), MFSQ, FRS, and BDI. RESULTS: The women were distributed into three groups: lean (N = 47); overweight (N = 22); and obese (N = 21). The ophthalmic artery showed lower PI in lean (1.72 ± 0.39) than in overweight (1.99 ± 0.30) and obese women (2.08 ± 0.19). The obese subjects presented the worst clitoral vascularization. The MFSQ for sexuality was higher in lean (45.8 ± 11.8) than in overweight (36.4 ± 15.0) and obese (36.1 ± 10.8) women. The frequency of intercourse per week was higher in lean (2.2 ± 1.4) than in overweight (1.3 ± 0.7) and obese (1.2 ± 0.4) women. The percentage of anorgasmic women was higher in obese (23%) than in lean subjects (6%). The FRS evidenced that the lean subjects represented themselves with a mean value (3.5 ± 1.0) lower than overweight (4.8 ± 0.7) and obese women (5.9 ± 0.6). The silhouette that represented their own ideal was significantly higher in obese (4.0 ± 0.4) than in overweight (3.3 ± 0.5) and lean (2.9 ± 0.7) subjects. The mean BDI was significantly higher in obese (15.8 ± 5.4) than in lean (8.4 ± 6.8) women. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss may be mandatory in obese subjects because obesity might impair the quality of sexual life by inducing genital and general vascular stiffness and body image distortion.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 01/2013; · 3.51 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 4, 2014