Long-term high-physiological-dose growth hormone reduces intra-abdominal fat in HIV-infected patients with a neutral effect on glucose metabolism.
ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long-term high-physiological-dose recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy on fat distribution and glucose metabolism in HIV-infected patients.
Forty-six HIV-infected Caucasian men on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), with an age range of 21-60 years and no significant comorbidity, were included in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, single-centre trial. Twenty-eight subjects were randomized to 0.7 mg/day rhGH, and 18 subjects to placebo, administered as daily subcutaneous injections between 1 and 3 pm for 40 weeks. Endpoints included changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), limb fat mass, percentage of limb fat, plasma lipids, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance.
VAT and trunk fat mass decreased significantly in the GH group compared with the placebo group [-19 cm(2) (-11%) vs. 12 cm(2) (6%), P=0.03, and -548 g (-9%) vs. 353 g (6%), P<0.01, respectively]. The beneficial fat redistribution in the GH group occurred without concomitant changes in subcutaneous fat at the abdomen or extremities. rhGH therapy was well tolerated. Insulin resistance, glucose tolerance, and total plasma cholesterol and triglycerides did not significantly change during intervention.
Daily 0.7 mg rhGH treatment for 40 weeks reduced abdominal visceral fat and trunk fat mass in HIV-infected patients. This treatment appeared to be safe with respect to glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.
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ABSTRACT: Growth hormone (GH)-secretion in HIV-lipodystrophy is impaired; however, GH-sensitivity of GH-target tissues remains to be evaluated. We measured overnight fasting concentrations of GH-sensitive insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) including GH binding protein (GHBP), a marker of GH-receptor sensitivity, in antiretroviral treated HIV-infected patients with (LIPO) and without lipodystrophy (NONLIPO) and antiretroviral naive HIV-infected patients (NAIVE). Three h GH-suppression tests using oral glucose were undertaken to determine dynamics of GH-secretion. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were increased in LIPO compared with NONLIPO (p <0.05), but did not differ significantly between NONLIPO and NAIVE. Area under the curve of GH (AUC-GH) during the GH-suppression test was decreased in LIPO compared with NONLIPO (p <0.05). Ratio of limb to trunk fat, which was decreased in LIPO compared to NONLIPO and NAIVE (p <0.001), correlated positively with AUC-GH and rebound-GH (p <0.05). All groups displayed suppression of GH during the suppression test (p <0.05) and all groups, except LIPO, displayed a rebound of GH (p <0.05), which probably is explained by persistently increased plasma glucose in LIPO compared with NONLIPO and NAIVE (p <0.01). GHBP was inversely correlated with AUC-GH (p <0.01). Our data suggest that GH-target tissues in LIPO are at least as GH-sensitive as in HIV-infected patients without lipodystrophy.Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2004; 36(11-12):832-9. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Visceral adipose tissue accumulates during antiretroviral therapy in many patients who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); this process is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. We assessed the use of a growth hormone-releasing factor analogue, tesamorelin, to decrease visceral adiposity. We randomly assigned 412 patients with HIV (86% of whom were men) who had an accumulation of abdominal fat to receive a daily subcutaneous injection of either 2 mg of tesamorelin or placebo for 26 weeks. The primary end point was the percent change from baseline in visceral adipose tissue as shown on computed tomography. Secondary end points included triglyceride levels, the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the level of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and self-assessed body image. Glycemic measures included glucose and insulin levels. The measure of visceral adipose tissue decreased by 15.2% in the tesamorelin group and increased by 5.0% in the placebo group; the levels of triglycerides decreased by 50 mg per deciliter and increased by 9 mg per deciliter, respectively, and the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol decreased by 0.31 and increased by 0.21, respectively (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Levels of total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol also improved significantly in the tesamorelin group. Levels of IGF-I increased by 81.0% in the tesamorelin group and decreased by 5.0% in the placebo group (P<0.001). Adverse events did not differ significantly between the two study groups, but more patients in the tesamorelin group withdrew from the study because of an adverse event. No significant differences were observed in glycemic measures. Daily tesamorelin for 26 weeks decreased visceral fat and improved lipid profiles, effects that might be useful in HIV-infected patients who have treatment-associated central fat accumulation. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00123253 [ClinicalTrials.gov] .).New England Journal of Medicine 12/2007; 357(23):2359-70. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) lipodystrophy (LIPO) is characterized by increased visceral adiposity, peripheral fat atrophy, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. GH concentrations are known to vary inversely with excess weight and body fat but have not been investigated in HIV lipodystrophy. Twenty-one subjects with HIV LIPO, 20 HIV-infected nonlipodystrophy subjects (NONLIPO), and 20 control (C) subjects were prospectively recruited for this study and compared. Subjects in the three groups were all male, age-matched [median, 47 yr old (interquartile range, 37-50) LIPO; 41 (37-44) NONLIPO; and 43 (37-49) C], and body mass index-matched [median, 24.3 kg/m(2) (interquartile range, 22.2-26.6) LIPO; 24.4 (23.3-25.9) NONLIPO; and 24.8 (22.7-26.1) C] (P: > 0.05 for all comparisons). Visceral abdominal fat [16,124 mm(2) (11,246-19,790) LIPO; 7,559 (5,134-11,201) NONLIPO; and 8,803 (6,165-11,623) C; P < 0.01 LIPO vs. NONLIPO and LIPO vs. C] and the ratio of visceral abdominal fat to sc abdominal fat [1.37 (0.71-2.44) LIPO vs. 0.57 (0.47-0.78) NONLIPO vs. 0.55 (0.41-0.71) C, P < 0.01 LIPO vs. NONLIPO and LIPO vs. C] were significantly increased in the LIPO subjects but were not significantly different between NONLIPO and C. The mean overnight GH concentration, determined from frequent sampling every 20 min (from 2000 h to 0800 h) was decreased in the LIPO subjects [0.38 microg/L (0.13-0.67) LIPO vs. 0.96 (0.53-1.30) NONLIPO vs. 0.81 (0.49-1.03) C, P < 0.05 LIPO vs. NONLIPO and LIPO vs. C] and not significantly different between NONLIPO and C. Pulse analysis demonstrated decreased baseline GH [0.08 microg/L (0.06-0.21) LIPO vs. 0.19 (0.10-0.32) NONLIPO vs. 0.17 (0.12-0.57) C, P < 0.05 LIPO vs. NONLIPO and LIPO vs. C] and GH peak amplitude [1.06 microg/L (0.46-1.94) LIPO vs. 2.47 (1.22-3.43) NONLIPO and 2.27 (1.36-4.25) C, P < 0.05 LIPO vs. NONLIPO and LIPO vs. C] in the LIPO subjects but no significant difference in pulse frequency. No significant differences were observed between NONLIPO and C for any GH parameter. Insulin-like growth factor-I was not different between the groups. Total body fat (r = -0.40, P = 0.01) and visceral fat (r = -0.58, P = 0.0001) correlated inversely with mean overnight GH concentrations in the HIV-infected patients. In a multivariate regression model, controlling for age, body mass index, body fat, and visceral fat, only visceral fat was a significant predictor of mean GH concentrations (P = 0.0036, r(2) for model = 0.40). These data demonstrate normal GH pulse frequency and insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations but reduced mean GH concentrations, basal GH concentrations, and GH pulse amplitude in patients with HIV lipodystrophy. Increased visceral adiposity is the strongest predictor of reduced GH concentrations in HIV lipodystrophy. Further studies are necessary to determine the clinical significance of reduced GH in patients with HIV lipodystrophy.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 02/2001; 86(2):504-10. · 6.43 Impact Factor