Phaeohyphomycosis due to Alternaria species in transplant recipients.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.
Transplant Infectious Disease (Impact Factor: 1.98). 12/2009; 12(3):242-50. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3062.2009.00482.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Alternaria species are members of a heterogeneous group of dematiaceous fungi that rarely cause opportunistic infections in transplant recipients. During a 20-year period from 1989 to 2008, 8 solid organ transplant recipients (63% males; median age, 48 years) developed Alternaria species infections at the Mayo Clinic. All patients were highly immunocompromised as evidenced by their receipt of multiple transplants, treatment of acute and chronic allograft rejection, and occurrence of other opportunistic infections. All patients presented with non-tender erythematous or violaceous skin papules, nodules, or pustules in exposed areas of the extremities. No case of visceral dissemination was observed. Itraconazole was the most common drug used for treatment, although voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin could potentially be useful based on our limited clinical data and in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing. One patient was treated with voriconazole, while another patient who was refractory to itraconazole had rapid resolution of lesions after the addition of caspofungin. Attempts at antifungal therapy alone were unsuccessful; all patients eventually required surgical excision of lesions. In conclusion, Alternaria species are rare but increasingly recognized opportunistic infections among highly immunocompromised transplant recipients. Wide excisional surgery combined with prolonged systemic antifungal therapy and reduction in immunosuppressive regimens provided the best chance of cure. Although itraconazole remains the most common drug for treatment, this case series highlights the potential clinical utility of caspofungin, voriconazole, and posaconazole as alternative regimens.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Dematiaceous, or dark-pigmented, fungi are known to cause infections such as phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and mycetoma. These fungi are becoming increasingly important opportunistic pathogens in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTR). We present a retrospective chart review of 27 SOTR who developed phaeohyphomycosis infections post-transplant from 1988 to 2009.Methods Cases were reviewed for fungal species isolated, date and source of culture, immunosuppressive and fungal therapy used, and outcome. The majority of isolates obtained were from the skin and soft tissue, with 3 pulmonary and brain abscesses.ResultsThe time from transplantation to onset of infection ranged from 2 months to 11 years. The species isolated were Exophiala (11), Ochroconis (3), Alternaria (2), Phoma (2), Wangiella (1), Cladosporium (1), Aureobasidium (1), Chaetomium (1), Coniothyrium (1), and non-sporulating fungi (2). An additional 4 patients had infections confirmed by pathology, but no cultures were done. Most of the affected skin lesions were surgically debrided and treated with itraconazole; 2 patients were treated with voriconazole and 2 with amphotericin D. Death from fungal disease occurred only in patients with pulmonary and brain abscesses.Conclusions As the number of SOTR increases, so does the incidence of fungal infections in that population. Surgery, along with antifungal therapy and a reduction in immunosuppression, are the cornerstones of treatment.
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    ABSTRACT: Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Alternaria infectoria in renal transplant recipient Several species of black fungi have been reported as agents of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis. Although most of these fungi are considered opportunistic pathogens, they play an important role in phaeohyphomycosis, a disease considered an emergent mycosis among solid organ recipients. We report a case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria infectoria of the left hand and the 4 th finger of the right hand of a 68-year-old male who underwent a renal transplant 35 months before. The lesion was treated with surgical excision. One year later, the patient presented a new lesion on the 5 th finger of the right hand, but this time caused by Colletotrichum gloeospo-rioides that was also removed surgically. Both lesions did not relapse after being removed. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against five antifungal drugs (amphotericin B, itraconazole, flucytosine, fluconazole and voriconazole). Alternaria infectoria was resistant to all five drugs and C. gloeosporioides was sensitive only to amphotericin B and voriconazole. We emphasize the need of histopathologic and microbiologic studies of new lesions of phaeohyphomycosis, since in this case the same patient was infected twice by two different fungi. Introducción E l uso de fármacos inmunosupresores en los pacientes sometidos a trasplantes de órganos sólidos aumenta la susceptibilidad a enfermedades infecciosas, causa importante de morbi-mortalidad en trasplantados. Las micosis superficiales y subcutáneas son frecuentes en pacientes en fase de mantención con tratamiento inmunosupresor. La feohifomicosis es una micosis emergente que se ha observado en pacientes trasplantados de órganos sólidos, causada por una amplia variedad de especies fúngicas, la mayoría de estos consi-derados patógenos oportunistas 1,2,3,4
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