R.D. Boyce, P.J. Deziel, C.C. Otley, M.P. Wilhelm, A.J. Eid, N.L. Wengenack, R.R. Razonable. Phaeohyphomycosis due to Alternaria species in transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis 2010: 12: 242–250. All rights reserved
Abstract: Alternaria species are members of a heterogenous group of dematiaceous fungi that rarely cause opportunistic infections in transplant recipients. During a 20-year period from 1989 to 2008, 8 solid organ transplant recipients (63% males; median age, 48 years) developed Alternaria species infections at the Mayo Clinic. All patients were highly immunocompromised as evidenced by their receipt of multiple transplants, treatment of acute and chronic allograft rejection, and occurrence of other opportunistic infections. All patients presented with non-tender erythematous or violaceous skin papules, nodules, or pustules in exposed areas of the extremities. No case of visceral dissemination was observed. Itraconazole was the most common drug used for treatment, although voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin could potentially be useful based on our limited clinical data and in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing. One patient was treated with voriconazole, while another patient who was refractory to itraconazole had rapid resolution of lesions after the addition of caspofungin. Attempts at antifungal therapy alone were unsuccessful; all patients eventually required surgical excision of lesions. In conclusion, Alternaria species are rare but increasingly recognized opportunistic infections among highly immunocompromised transplant recipients. Wide excisional surgery combined with prolonged systemic antifungal therapy and reduction in immunosuppressive regimens provided the best chance of cure. Although itraconazole remains the most common drug for treatment, this case series highlights the potential clinical utility of caspofungin, voriconazole, and posaconazole as alternative regimens.
"However, there is no formal consensus which specific agent to use and the ideal duration of therapy because clinical trials are lacking (Ben-Ami et al., 2009; Naggie and Perfect, 2009; Revankar, 2006). Surgery is probably the best treatment of well delineated lesions (Boyce et al., 2009; Farina et al., 2007; Ogawa et al., 2009), but even when excision is complete, additional medical treatment is advocated to avoid local sporotrichoid dissemination and to treat concomitant subclinical lesions (Boyce et al., 2009; Farina et al., 2007). In selected patients, cure can be achieved with medical treatment alone, as demonstrated in the second case in which one of the lesions healed without excision (Farina et al., 2007; Naggie and Perfect, 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dematiaceous molds are increasingly recognized as important human pathogens. We report 2 cases of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis in renal allograft recipients, caused by Alternaria alternata and Curvularia spp., respectively, which demonstrate the diversity in clinical presentation, the different therapeutic strategies, and the clinical importance of azole antifungal-induced drug-drug interactions with immunosuppressive therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a case of a progressive subcutaneous Alternaria alternata infection in the hand of a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The diagnosis was based upon the examination of tissue biopsy and isolation of the etiologic agent in culture. The identity of the isolate was determined by phenotypic characteristics and by sequencing the ITS and D1/D2 regions of the rDNA. Despite combination therapy with voriconazole and micafungin, the lesion continued to progress. Posaconazole therapy, along with surgical excision of the infected tissue, resulted in the eradication of infection. The limitations of the clinical management of invasive Alternaria infections are discussed.
Medical mycology: official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology 02/2011; 49(5):543-7. DOI:10.3109/13693786.2011.555848 · 2.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonneoplastic mucocutaneous lesions are frequent in organ transplant recipients. Many of them are caused by a direct toxicity of immunosuppressive drugs, in particular glucocorticoids and cyclosporine. The effects of these agents are dose- and time-dependent. Glucocorticoids can cause acne, Cushingoid appearance, irregular purpuric areas, friable skin, and wide and violaceous stripes. Cyclosporine can cause hypertrichosis, pilosebaceous lesions, and gum hypertrophy. Patients with esthetic changes may show poor adherence to treatment with these immunosuppressive agents that may lead to progressive graft dysfunction. Apart from this direct toxicity, vigorous immunosuppression may render the transplant recipients more susceptible to mucocutaneous infections. Fungal infection, viral warts, and bacterial folliculitis are the most frequent types of mucocutaneous infection. Some fungal infections, such as oral candidiasis and pityriasis versicolor, are relatively trivial, but other mycotic infections can cause severe or disfigurating lesions. Among viral infections, warts and condylomata caused by human papilloma virus are frequent and may favor the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Bacterial infections are usually trivial in the early period after transplantation, being represented almost exclusively by folliculitis. However, subcutaneous infections may cause a necrotizing fasciculitis which is a life-threatening disorder, usually sustained by polymicrobial pathogens.
Transplant International 08/2011; 24(11):1041-50. DOI:10.1111/j.1432-2277.2011.01308.x · 2.60 Impact Factor
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