Indications for combined liver and kidney transplantation: propositions after a 23-yr experience.
ABSTRACT The frequency of combined liver and kidney transplants (CLKT) persists despite the pronounced scarcity of organs. In this review, we sought to ascertain any factors that would reduce the use of these limited commodities. Seventy-five adult CLKT were performed over a 23-yr period at our center, 29 (39%) of which occurred during the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) era. Overall, patient survival rates were 82%, 73%, and 62% at one, three, and five yr, respectively. There was no difference in patient survival based either on pre-transplant hemodialysis status or by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at the time of transplant. Patients undergoing a second CLKT or a liver retransplantation at the time of CLKT had a survival rate of 30% at three months. In the MELD era, patient survival was unchanged (p = NS) despite an older recipient population (p = 0.0029) and a greater number of hepatitis C patients (p = 0.0428). In summary, patients requiring liver retransplantation with concomitant renal failure should be denied CLKT. Renal allografts may also be spared by implementing strict criteria for renal organ allocation (GFR < 30 mL/min at the time of evaluation) and considering the elimination of preemptive kidney transplantation in CLKT.