Chronic Cortical and Subcortical Pathology with Associated Neurological Deficits Ensuing Experimental Herpes Encephalitis

Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, MN, USA.
Brain Pathology (Impact Factor: 3.84). 11/2009; 20(4):738-50. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3639.2009.00354.x
Source: PubMed


Long-term neurological sequela is common among herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) survivors. Animal models for HSE are used to investigate mechanisms of acute disease, but little has been done to model chronic manifestations of HSE. The current study presents a detailed, systematic analysis of chronic neuropathology, including characterization of topography and sequential progression of degenerative lesions and inflammation. Subsequent to intranasal HSV-1 infection, inflammatory responses that were temporally and spatially distinct persisted in infected cortical and brain stem regions. Neutrophils were present exclusively within the olfactory bulb and brain stem regions during the acute phase of infection, while the chronic inflammation was marked by plasma cells, lymphocytes and activated microglia. The chronic lymphocytic infiltrate, cytokine production, and activated microglia were associated with the loss of cortical neuropile in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. Animals surviving the acute infection showed a spectrum of chronic lesions from decreased brain volume, neuronal loss, activated astrocytes, and glial scar formation to severe atrophy and cavitations of the cortex. These lesions were also associated with severe spatial memory deficits in surviving animals. Taken together, this model can be utilized to further investigate the mechanisms of neurological defects that follow in the wake of HSE.

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Available from: Nicholas A Robinson, Mar 29, 2014
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    • "Recently, we reported that endogenous NSC proliferation is markedly reduced during chronic herpes encephalitis [33]. This decrease in NSC proliferation coincides with the accumulation of activated CD8 T-cells are the present in the brain [29], [47]. Results from the present study suggest that activated CD8 T-cells in the brain could foster an inflammatory milieu that inhibits neurogenesis, mediated in a large part by IFN-γ. "
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) to self-renew, migrate to damaged sites, and differentiate into neurons has renewed interest in using them in therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. Neurological diseases, including viral infections of the brain, are often accompanied by chronic inflammation, whose impact on NSC function remains unexplored. We have previously shown that chronic neuroinflammation, a hallmark of experimental herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in mice, is dominated by brain-infiltrating activated CD8 T-cells. In the present study, activated CD8 lymphocytes were found to suppress NSC proliferation profoundly. Luciferase positive (luc+) NSCs co-cultured with activated, MHC-matched, CD8+ lymphocytes (luc-) showed two- to five-fold lower luminescence than co-cultures with un-stimulated lymphocytes. On the other hand, similarly activated CD4+ lymphocytes did not suppress NSC growth. This differential lymphocyte effect on proliferation was confirmed by decreased BrdU uptake by NSC cultured with activated CD8 T-cells. Interestingly, neutralizing antibodies to interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) reversed the impact of CD8 lymphocytes on NSCs. Antibodies specific to the IFN-γ receptor-1 subunit complex abrogated the inhibitory effects of both CD8 lymphocytes and IFN-γ, indicating that the inhibitory effect of these cells was mediated by IFN-γ in a receptor-specific manner. In addition, activated CD8 lymphocytes decreased levels of nestin and Sox2 expression in NSCs while increasing GFAP expression, suggesting possible induction of an altered differentiation state. Furthermore, NSCs obtained from IFN-γ receptor-1 knock-out embryos were refractory to the inhibitory effects of activated CD8+ T lymphocytes on cell proliferation and Sox2 expression. Taken together, the studies presented here demonstrate a role for activated CD8 T-cells in regulating NSC function mediated through the production of IFN-γ. This cytokine may influence neuro-restorative processes and ultimately contribute to the long-term sequelae commonly seen following herpes encephalitis.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105219. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105219 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Indeed, we found equal mortality outcomes in both saline and SFN-treated HSV-infected mice. However, post-encephalitic mice continue to have active and persistent brain inflammation which is associated with manifestation of severe cognitive deficits [15]. Data presented in this manuscript support the notion that patients may benefit from SFN treatments used in combination with antiviral therapy during active herpes encephalitis, as well as when given during post-encephalitic recovery. "
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by brain-infiltrating macrophages and neutrophils, as well as resident microglia, are pivotal to pathogen clearance during viral brain infection. However, unchecked free radical generation is also responsible for damage to and cytotoxicity of critical host tissue bystander to primary infection. These unwanted effects of excessive ROS are combated by local cellular production of antioxidant enzymes, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1). In this study, we showed that experimental murine herpes encephalitis triggered robust ROS production, as well as an opposing upregulation of the antioxidants HO-1 and Gpx1. This antioxidant response was insufficient to prevent tissue damage, neurotoxicity, and mortality associated with viral brain infection. Previous studies corroborate our data supporting astrocytes as the major antioxidant producer in brain cell cultures exposed to HSV-1 stimulated microglia. We hypothesized that stimulating opposing antioxidative responses in astrocytes, as well as neurons, would mitigate the effects of ROS-mediated neurotoxicity both in vitro and during viral brain infection in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that the addition of sulforaphane, a potent stimulator of antioxidant responses, enhanced HO-1 and Gpx1 expression in astrocytes through the activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Additionally, sulforaphane treatment was found to be effective in reducing neurotoxicity associated with HSV-stimulated microglial ROS production. Finally, intraperitoneal injections of sulforaphane into mice during active HSV infection reduced neuroinflammation via a decrease in brain-infiltrating leukocytes, macrophage- and neutrophil-produced ROS, and MHCII-positive, activated microglia. These data support a key role for astrocyte-produced antioxidants in modulating oxidative stress and neuronal damage in response to viral infection.
    PLoS ONE 04/2012; 7(4):e36216. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0036216 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 infection of the brain is the leading cause of sporadic viral encephalitis with known etiology [5]. It results in devastating necrotizing acute encephalitis, but may also develop into a chronic inflammatory brain disease with associated neurodegeneration [6,7]. As a result, many of the cytopathic effects observed during viral encephalitis may not simply be due to viral replication, but may also result from host-mediated secondary mechanisms of damage associated with viral clearance including oxidative stress. "
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    ABSTRACT: Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory cytokines by microglial cells in response to viral brain infection contributes to both pathogen clearance and neuronal damage. In the present study, we examined the effect of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1-induced, NADPH oxidase-derived ROS in activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) as well as driving cytokine and chemokine expression in primary murine microglia. Oxidation of 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate (H2DCFDA) was used to measure production of intracellular ROS in microglial cell cultures following viral infection. Virus-induced cytokine and chemokine mRNA and protein levels were assessed using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Virus-induced phosphorylation of microglial p38 and p44/42 (ERK1/2) MAPKs was visualized using Western Blot, and levels of phospho-p38 were quantified using Fast Activated Cell-based ELISA (FACE assay). Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and apocynin (APO), inhibitors of NADPH oxidases, were used to investigate the role of virus-induced ROS in MAPK activation and cytokine, as well as chemokine, production. Levels of intracellular ROS were found to be highly elevated in primary murine microglial cells following infection with HSV and the majority of this virus-induced ROS was blocked following DPI and APO treatment. Correspondingly, inhibition of NADPH oxidase also decreased virus-induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. In addition, microglial p38 and p44/42 MAPKs were found to be phosphorylated in response to viral infection and this activation was also blocked by inhibitors of NADPH oxidase. Finally, inhibition of either of these ROS-induced signaling pathways suppressed cytokine (TNF-α and IL-1β) production, while chemokine (CCL2 and CXCL10) induction pathways were sensitive to inhibition of p38, but not ERK1/2 MAPK. Data presented herein demonstrate that HSV infection induces proinflammatory responses in microglia through NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS and the activation of MAPKs.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 09/2011; 8(1):123. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-8-123 · 5.41 Impact Factor
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