El aceite de aguacate y sus propiedades nutricionales

e-Gnosis Num.003 01/2005;
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Due to the composition of its fatty acids, the avocado oil meets the nutritional requirements that focus on the reduction of the amount of saturated fats in foods. It is characterized by the fact of having a low amount of saturated fatty acids (between 10% and 19%, depending on the variety and maturity stage), a high amount of oleic acid (up to 80%), an acceptable level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (11%-15%) and no cholesterol. It has been proven that the diets enriched with avocado oil are as effective as those containing maize oil, soy oil or sunflower oil in reducing total cholesterol, LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol and plasma triglycerides, in hypercholesterolemic individuals as well as in those with diabetes mellitus type 2, which is reflected in a decrease in cardiovascular risks. Also, the intake of avocado oil increases the percentage of HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol in plasma in animal modeling. In addition to the above, the avocado oil contains an atherogenicity degree comparable to that of the maize oil or olive oil. The effectiveness of avocado oil to reduce total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in plasma and its low atherogenicity level indicate that this oil can play a beneficial role in a nutritious diet

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    ABSTRACT: "Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat," issued in Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans in the year 2000, has an interesting and lengthy history. The first guideline, for which there was extensive scientific data to show that dietary excess increased chronic disease risk, prompted much scientific discussion and debate when implemented as dietary guidance. Three major changes in the guideline are noted since it was issued in 1980, i.e., numerical goals for dietary fats; the applicability of recommended fat intakes for all individuals > or =2 y old; and rewording to emphasize reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intakes. The shift in emphasis includes the terminology moderate fat, which replaces the phrasing low fat. National data about the food supply, the population's dietary intake, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, and nutritional status indicators (e.g., serum cholesterol levels) related to dietary fats help to monitor nutrition and health in the population. Experts consider that national data, although not without limitations, are sufficient to conclude that U.S. intakes of fats, as a proportion of energy, have decreased. The lower intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol are consistent with decreases in blood cholesterol levels and lower rates of coronary mortality over the past 30 years. Strategies are needed and some are suggested, to further encourage the population to achieve a dietary pattern that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat. Other suggestions are offered to improve national nutrition monitoring and surveillance related to the guideline.
    Journal of Nutrition 02/2001; 131(2S-1):510S-526S. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resumen Fundamento: La dieta mediterránea ha sido propuesta como modelo de patrón dietético para la prevención de la cardiopatía isquémica. El proyecto SUN ("Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra") es un estudio epidemiológico prospectivo de cohortes, que se inició en el año 2000 y que va dirigido a identificar determinantes dietéticos y no dietéticos implicados en estas enfermedades. La viabilidad del proyecto, se comprobó con un estudio piloto en dos fases. Métodos: La primera fase del estudio piloto contó con la participa-ción de voluntarios en los que se valoraron las exposiciones dietéti-cas y no dietéticas mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado y por entrevista personal. Para la segunda fase, se seleccionó una muestra aleatoria de 600 graduados y se les envió el cuestionario por correo. Para estimar la variabilidad inter-sujetos se calcularon los percentiles 10, 25, 50, 75 y 90 de consumo para los principales alimentos y nutrientes considerados. Resultados: Los participantes entendieron y respondieron adecua-damente los cuestionarios. El tiempo medio empleado en contestar el cuestionario fue de 55,0 minutos (IC 95%=50,7-59,3). Se encon-tró una amplia variabilidad inter-sujetos entre los percentiles 10 y 90 en el consumo de los principales alimentos que pueden conside-rarse indicadores de la dieta mediterránea, como son el aceite de oliva, las frutas, las verduras y el vino. Conclusiones: La submuestra presentó una participación relativa-mente aceptable. Se halló un patrón de dieta mediterránea con una variabilidad inter-sujetos suficientemente amplia como para poder encontrar asociaciones entre el consumo de alimentos y la incidencia de las principales enfermedades cardiovasculares. Summary Background: The Mediterranean diet has been postulated as a model for the prevention of coronary heart disease. The SUN project ("Se-guimiento Universidad de Navarra") is an epidemiological prospective cohort study of University of Navarre alumni started in 2000 with the main objective of identifying dietary and non-dietary determinants of these disorders. The feasibility of the project was verified in a two-phase pilot study. Method: Volunteers participated in the first phase of the pilot study. Dietary and non-dietary exposures were measured using self-administered questionnaires and interview. A random sample of 600 graduates was selected for the second phase of the pilot study. The selected alumni received a questionnaire by mail. The 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the consumption of each food item or nutrient to estimate the inter-subject variability. Results: The participants understood and answered the questionnaires properly. The mean time spent in completing the questionnaire was 55 minutes (95% CI: 50.7-59.3). A wide inter-subject variability was found in the consumption of food items considered as more representative of the Mediterranean diet (olive oil, fruits, vegetables and wine) with major differences between the 10th and 90th percentile. A Mediterranean diet pattern was found with a wide inter-subject variability. Conclusions: The response rate was acceptable. This finding is likely to ensure the identification of associations between the consumption of given food items and the occurrence of the main outcomes we are targeting.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the mechanism(s) underlying the cholesterolemic response to dietary cholesterol and saturated fatty acids, low density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism was studied in two groups of cynomolgus monkeys fed diets containing 30 or 36% of total energy as fat. At each dietary fat level, the same group of monkeys was sequentially fed three dietary cholesterol concentrations as egg yolk in the following sequence: low (0.01 mg/kJ), medium (0.03 mg/kJ) and high (0.05 mg/kJ) for 30, 32 and 24 wk, respectively. Dietary polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were the same in the two groups; the 6% difference in fat was due to the saturated fatty acids, 12:0 and 14:0. Serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and LDL apolipoprotein B concentrations increased (P < 0.05) with dietary cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner in both fat groups. These elevations were the result of generally increasing LDL apolipoprotein B production rates, concomitant with reduced LDL apolipoprotein B fractional clearance at the high cholesterol intake. Serum HDL cholesterol and HDL apolipoprotein A-I concentrations were not affected in a consistent manner. These results demonstrate that cynomolgus monkeys are hyperresponsive to dietary cholesterol compared with humans, suggesting that this model may be useful in identifying metabolic and genetic predictors for hyperresponsiveness to dietary cholesterol in humans as well as assessing the metabolic heterogeneity of responses to dietary cholesterol.
    Journal of Nutrition 07/1998; 128(7):1104-13. · 4.20 Impact Factor


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