Article

Municipal solid waste characteristics and management in Nigeria

Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering 01/2009; 6(3).
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Municipal solid waste management has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing environmental protection agencies in developing countries. This study presents the current solid waste management practices and problems in Nigeria. Solid waste management is characterized by inefficient collection methods, insufficient coverage of the collection system and improper disposal. The waste density ranged from 280 to 370 kg/m3 and the waste generation rates ranged from 0.44 to 0.66 kg/capita/day. The common constraints faced environmental agencies include lack of institutional arrangement, insufficient financial resources, absence of bylaws and standards, inflexible work schedules, insufficient information on quantity and composition of waste, and inappropriate technology. The study suggested study of institutional, political, social, financial, economic and technical aspects of municipal solid waste management in order to achieve sustainable and effective solid waste management in Nigeria.

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    • "The municipal solid wastes were collected from Bagamoyo municipality dump located at Sanzale. The waste sample composition is studied and taken from the average composition ratio of the municipal solid waste studied from previous works reported by [11] [31] [32] [33] [34]. This composition will be taken as a standard for the current work. "
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    ABSTRACT: To minimize the pollution from municipal solid waste incinerators, the study of operating conditions is imperative. The local design incinerators can be used for high performance combustion and minimize pollutions. The incinerator located at Bagamoyo hospital in Tanzania is used as a pilot for this experiment. The emission and operating conditions shows that the performance of incinerator is at maximum peak of about 70% when the oxygen at exit is about 6.9% and when secondary temperature is between 1073 and 1173K and primary temperature maintained at 673K. The experiment shows that when the primary chamber temperature increases beyond 673K, the secondary temperature decreases this is due to complete combustion at primary chamber which will cause insufficient incomplete gases and therefore limited combustible gases to burn.
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    • "Lagos has a current population of about 21 million people with a population density of 6,030/km 2 . The daily generation per capita (GPC) is estimated at 0.63kg (Ogwueleka, 2009) thus generating about 13,230 tonnes of MSW. About 70% of this mass (about 9,261 tonne/ day ) makes it to the landfill. "
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    ABSTRACT: About 3.5 million tonnes of comingled municipal solid wastes (MSW) are dumped annually into the landfill areas of Lagos in Nigeria with a human population of about 21 million. Upon geo-biochemical processes, leachates are produced which are improperly collected and may be introduced to the environment with possible insidious effects on human health. Eight (8) composite leachates samples were collected from four (4) landfills in the megacity and tested for their physiochemical parameters in order to determine their suitability for discharge into agricultural soils and groundwater systems. Geological site investigation reveal that the landfills except Epe have significant attenuative clayey soil protection above groundwater, and can adsorb and/ or precipitate contaminants/ pollutants within its mass. Using ANOVA, juxtapositions of the Fcalculated with the Fcritical valuesrevealed a metal sequence of : Hg > Zn >As >Mn >Ni >K >Pb >Cr>Cd>Fe. Also, total alkalinity> total hardness> total acidity. All the measured anions had Fcalculated above Fcritical values and were in the hierarchy : Chloride> sulphate> phosphate>nitrate.. Mean concentrations were in the order : Fe>Cd>Cr>Pb>K>Ni=Mn>As>Zn>Hg. Fe also posted the highest value for standard deviation. Results of the ratios of the standard deviation to the means were in the sequence: Fe> Zn>K> Ni > Mn>Pb> Cr> Cd> Hg> As. The presence of arsenic above prescribed limits in the Epe leachate is a major concern because the lithology is sandy, and has a reported depth of about 3m to the unconfined aquifer that adjoins the Epe Lagoon. This expansive landfill is recommended for closure.
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    • "This is the case in Minna where open dump is the major disposal technique; this has various environmental concerns considering the various sources of waste. Agriculture which provides a number of services such as crop production and animal rearing, has become a known source of waste due to its demand [8]. Human waste has also increased as a result of increase in population in the state with Minna, the capital city of Niger State, Nigeria has a total population of approximately 510,000. "
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    ABSTRACT: Humans need to dispose unused substances as waste. This natural cycle is beyond human control. Though waste cannot be eliminated completely, it can however be managed. Developed countries have gone a long way to manage and re-use such waste. In third world countries like India, Nigeria and other African countries, management of waste is proving a hard nut to crack. It is observed that many houses in Minna metropolis don't have adequate access for waste Disposal and collection when necessary. This raises a question as to how the waste generated by occupants of these houses is managed. This paper aims at assessing the current municipal waste management practices in Minna metropolis with a view to suggesting better approaches if need be. In the course of the study, observation plays a key role in identifying the problem in these areas, while structured interview of occupants is used to shed more light on the root causes of the problem(s) observed. Data gathered is collated and analyzed, and from which deductions are made. From the findings it showed that the food remnants formed the highest percentage of waste with about 50% of the wastes examined while plastics waste was at an average of 13%. Recommendations are made as to how best to manage municipal waste in residential areas of Minna, Nigeria.
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