Neuroprotective effects of PDGF against oxidative stress and the signaling pathway involved.
ABSTRACT The neuroprotective effects of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and the major signaling pathways involved in these were examined using primary cultured mouse cortical neurons subjected to H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. The specific function of the PDGF beta-receptor (PDGFR-beta) was examined by the selective deletion of the corresponding gene using the Cre-loxP system in vitro. In wild-type neurons, PDGF-BB enhanced the survival of these neurons and suppressed H(2)O(2)-induced caspase-3 activation. The prosurvival effect of PDGF-AA was less than that of PDGF-BB. PDGF-BB highly activated Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. PDGF-AA activated these molecules at lesser extent than PDGF-BB. In particular, PDGF-AA induced activation of Akt was at very low level. The neuroprotective effects of PDGF-BB were antagonized by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), JNK and p38. The PDGFR-beta-depleted neurons showed increased vulnerability to oxidative stress, and less responsiveness to PDGF-BB-induced cytoprotection and signal activation, in which Akt activation was most strongly suppressed. After all, these results demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of PDGF and the signaling pathways involved against oxidative stress. The effects of PDGF-BB were more potent than those of PDGF-AA. This might be due to the activation and additive effects of two PDGFRs after PDGF-BB stimulation. Furthermore, the PI3-K/Akt pathway that was deduced to be preferentially activated by PDGFR-beta may explain the potent effects of PDGF-BB.
Article: Chotosan ameliorates cognitive and emotional deficits in an animal model of type 2 diabetes: possible involvement of cholinergic and VEGF/PDGF mechanisms in the brain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Diabetes is one of the risk factors for cognitive deficits such as Alzheimer's disease. To obtain a better understanding of the anti-dementia effect of chotosan (CTS), a Kampo formula, we investigated its effects on cognitive and emotional deficits of type 2 diabetic db/db mice and putative mechanism(s) underlying the effects. METHODS: Seven-week-old db/db mice received daily administration of CTS (375 -- 750 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drug tacrine (THA: 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) during an experimental period of 7 weeks. From the age of 9-week-old, the animals underwent the novel object recognition test, the modified Y-maze test, and the water maze test to elucidate cognitive performance and the elevated plus maze test to elucidate anxiety-related behavior. After completing behavioral studies, Western blotting and immunohistochemical studies were conducted. RESULTS: Compared with age-matched non-diabetic control strain (m/m) mice, db/db mice exhibited impaired cognitive performance and an increased level of anxiety. CTS ameliorated cognitive and emotional deficits of db/db mice, whereas THA improved only cognitive performance. The phosphorylated levels of Akt and PKCalpha in the hippocampus were significantly lower and higher, respectively, in db/db mice than in m/m mice. Expression levels of the hippocampal cholinergic marker proteins and the number of the septal cholinergic neurons were also reduced in db/db mice compared with those in m/m mice. Moreover, the db/db mice had significantly reduced levels of vasculogenesis/angiogenesis factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor type 2, platelet-derived growth factor-B, and PDGF receptor beta, in the hippocampus. CTS and THA treatment reversed these neurochemical and histological alterations caused by diabetes. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that CTS ameliorates diabetes-induced cognitive deficits by protecting central cholinergic and VEGF/PDGF systems via Akt signaling pathway and that CTS exhibits the anxiolytic effect via neuronal mechanism(s) independent of cholinergic or VEGF/PDGF systems in db/db mice.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10/2012; 12(1):188. · 2.24 Impact Factor
Article: PDGFR-β as a positive regulator of tissue repair in a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) and receptors (PDGFRs) are abundantly expressed in the central nervous system, their functions largely remain elusive. We investigated the role of PDGFR-β in tissue responses and functional recovery after photothrombolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In the normal adult mouse brain, PDGFR-β was mainly localized in neurons and in pericyte/vascular smooth muscle cells (PC/vSMCs). From 3 to 28 days after MCAO, postnatally induced systemic PDGFR-β knockout mice (Esr-KO) exhibited the delayed recovery of body weight and behavior, and larger infarction volume than controls. In Esr-KO, PC/vSMC coverage was decreased and vascular leakage of infused fluorescent-labeled albumin was extensive within the ischemic lesion, but not in the uninjured cerebral cortex. Angiogenesis levels were comparable between Esr-KO and controls. In another PDGFR-β conditional KO mouse (Nestin-KO), PDGFR-β was deleted in neurons and astrocytes from embryonic day 10.5, but was preserved in PC/vSMCs. After MCAO, vascular leakage and infarction volume in Nestin-KO were worse than controls, but partly improved compared with Esr-KO. Astroglial scar formation in both Esr-KO and Nestin-KO was similarly reduced compared with controls after MCAO. These data suggested that PDGFR-β signaling is crucial for neuroprotection, endogenous tissue repair, and functional recovery after stroke by targeting neurons, PC/vSMCs, and astrocytes.Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 09/2011; 32(2):353-67. · 5.46 Impact Factor
Article: Chotosan (Diaoteng San)-induced improvement of cognitive deficits in senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8) involves the amelioration of angiogenic/neurotrophic factors and neuroplasticity systems in the brain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chotosan (CTS, Diaoteng San), a Kampo medicine (ie Chinese medicine) formula, is reportedly effective in the treatment of patients with cerebral ischemic insults. This study aims to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CTS in cognitive deficits and investigates the effects and molecular mechanism(s) of CTS on learning and memory deficits and emotional abnormality in an animal aging model, namely 20-week-old senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8), with and without a transient ischemic insult (T2VO). Age-matched senescence-resistant inbred strain mice (SAMR1) were used as control. SAMP8 received T2VO (T2VO-SAMP8) or sham operation (sham-SAMP8) at day 0. These SAMP8 groups were administered CTS (750 mg/kg, p.o.) or water daily for three weeks from day 3. Compared with the control group, both sham-SAMP8 and T2VO-SAMP8 groups exhibited cognitive deficits in the object discrimination and water maze tests and emotional abnormality in the elevated plus maze test. T2VO significantly exacerbated spatial cognitive deficits of SAMP8 elucidated by the water maze test. CTS administration ameliorated the cognitive deficits and emotional abnormality of sham- and T2VO-SAMP8 groups. Western blotting and immunohistochemical studies revealed a marked decrease in the levels of phosphorylated forms of neuroplasticity-related proteins, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the frontal cortices of sham-SAMP8 and T2VO-SAMP8. Moreover, these animal groups showed significantly reduced levels of vasculogenesis/angiogenesis factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor type 2 (VEGFR2), platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A) and PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα). CTS treatment reversed the expression levels of these factors down-regulated in the brains of sham- and T2VO-SAMP8. Recovery of impaired neuroplasticity system and VEGF/PDGF systems may play a role in the ameliorative effects of CTS on cognitive dysfunction caused by aging and ischemic insult.Chinese Medicine 09/2011; 6:33. · 1.79 Impact Factor