Functional silica nanoparticle-mediated neuronal membrane sealing following traumatic spinal cord injury.
ABSTRACT The mechanical damage to neurons and their processes induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a progressive cascade of pathophysiological events beginning with the derangement of ionic equilibrium and collapse of membrane permeability. This leads to a cumulative deterioration of neurons, axons, and the tissue architecture of the cord. We have previously shown that the application of the hydrophilic polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) following spinal cord or brain injury can rapidly restore membrane integrity, reduce oxidative stress, restore impaired axonal conductivity, and mediate functional recovery in rats, guinea pigs, and dogs. However there are limits to both the concentration and the molecular weight of the application that do not permit the broadest recovery across an injured animal population. In this study, PEG-decorated silica nanoparticles (PSiNPs) sealed cells, as shown by the significantly reduced leakage of lactate dehydrogenase from damaged cells compared with uncoated particles or PEG alone. Further in vivo tests showed that PSiNPs also significantly reduced the formation of reactive oxygen species and the process of lipid peroxidation of the membrane. Fabrication of PSiNPs containing embedded dyes also revealed targeting of the particles to damaged, but not undamaged, spinal cord tissues. In an in vivo crush/contusion model of guinea pig SCI, every animal but one injected with PSiNPs recovered conduction through the cord lesion, whereas none of the control animals did. These findings suggest that the use of multifunctional nanoparticles may offer a novel treatment approach for spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and possibly neurodegenerative disorders.
- SourceAvailable from: Shibsekhar Roy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Critical limitation of nanoparticles (NP) is their aggregation after functionalisation and antibody cross-linking. We analysed the cause of this aggregation with respect to functionalities (carboxyls and amines) on the NP surface. We have devised a low cost novel method to reduce such aggregations during protein cross-linking and validated it by probing the platelet surface with platelet surface-specific anti-CD41 antibody conjugated NPs.The Analyst 09/2013; · 3.91 Impact Factor
- Neural Regeneration Research 11/2014; 9(21):1876-7. · 0.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An injury potential is the direct current potential difference between the site of spinal cord injury and the healthy nerves. Its initial amplitude is a significant indicator of the severity of spinal cord injury, and many cations, such as sodium and calcium, account for the major portion of injury potentials. This injury potential, as well as injury current, can be modulated by direct current field stimulation; however, the appropriate parameters of the electrical field are hard to define. In this paper, injury potential is used as a parameter to adjust the intensity of electrical stimulation. Injury potential could be modulated to slightly above 0 mV (as the anode-centered group) by placing the anodes at the site of the injured spinal cord and the cathodes at the rostral and caudal sections, or around -70 mV, which is resting membrane potential (as the cathode-centered group) by reversing the polarity of electrodes in the anode-centered group. In addition, rats receiving no electrical stimulation were used as the control group. Results showed that the absolute value of the injury potentials acquired after 30 minutes of electrical stimulation was higher than the control group rats and much lower than the initial absolute value, whether the anodes or the cathodes were placed at the site of injury. This phenomenon illustrates that by changing the polarity of the electrical field, electrical stimulation can effectively modulate the injury potentials in rats after spinal cord injury. This is also beneficial for the spontaneous repair of the cell membrane and the reduction of cation influx.Neural Regeneration Research 09/2013; 8(27):2531-9. · 0.23 Impact Factor