Footprinting is a method for determining the sequence selectivity of DNA-binding compounds in which ligands protect DNA from cleavage at their binding sites. Footprinting templates are typically 50-200 base pairs long, and DNase I is the most commonly used nuclease for these experiments. This chapter describes the preparation and labelling of suitable DNA footprinting substrates, the footprinting experiment itself, and the way in which these data can be used to estimate the dissociation constant of the interaction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-cell activation and induction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) expression in human T lymphocytes require both interaction of foreign antigen with the T-cell antigen receptor and protein kinase C (PKC) stimulation. Agents such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) that stimulate PKC augment the effects of antigen but are not sufficient for IL-2 activation. By analysis of deletion mutants, we identified three DNA sequences extending from -73 to -89, -217 to -255, and -263 to -279, designated IL-2 sites A, D, and E, respectively, that are required for maximal induction of IL-2 expression. One of these regions, site E, interacted with a protein (NF-IL-2E) present only in the nuclei of cells which have been stimulated. The other two sequences interacted with a protein (NF-IL-2A) that is constitutively expressed in T cells. When multiple tandem copies of either the E site or the A site were placed upstream of the gamma-fibrinogen promoter, they activated expression via this promoter in response to signals initiated at the antigen receptor but not following PMA stimulation. For this reason, we denoted them antigen receptor response elements. The uncoupling of antigen receptor and PKC requirements in these studies indicates that these signal pathways are, at least in part, distinct and integrated at the level of the gene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the factors which influence the coordinately and developmentally regulated expression of the three adjacent fibrinogen genes, we have defined the functional regions of the gamma-fibrinogen promoter and the proteins which bind to them. Using a series of 5' and internal deletion mutations, we found that sequences between 88 and 43 base pairs (bp) upstream of the gamma-fibrinogen transcription initiation site functioned in cis to direct properly initiated mRNA accumulation in transfected hepatocytes. The efficient function of these sequences was highly distance dependent, since transcriptional activity decreased by 92% when they were moved 32 bp upstream of the TATA box. We demonstrated that two known and one putative transcriptional factors interacted with this 47-bp sequence. The transcription factor Sp1 interacted with sequences between -51 and -46 as demonstrated by protection from DNase I digestion with the purified protein. Directly adjacent to the Sp1 site, between nucleotides -66 and -53, there was a sequence which bound a CAAT-binding factor. Finally, sequences just 5' to the CAAT factor-binding site interacted with the adenovirus major late transcriptional factor as previously demonstrated. Internal deletion mutations which disrupt these interactions diminished the activity of the promoter in vivo. One consequence of the interaction of these proteins is that a bend is placed in the DNA at or near their sites of interaction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that iron regulates the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). To elucidate the underlying mechanisms we performed a series of transient transfections of murine fibroblast (NIH-3T3) and macrophage-like cells (J774.A1) with reporter plasmids containing the iNOS promoter and deletions thereof. By means of this and subsequent DNase I footprinting analysis we identified a regulatory region between -153 and -142 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site of the iNOS promoter that was sensitive to regulation by iron perturbation. Gel shift and supershift assays revealed that the responsible protein for this observation is NF-IL6, a member of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein family of transcription factors. Binding of NF-IL6 to its consensus motif within the iNOS promoter was inducible by IFN-gamma and/or LPS, was reduced by iron, and was enhanced by the iron chelator desferrioxamine. Introduction of a double mutation into the NF-IL6 binding site (-153/-142) of an iNOS promoter construct resulted in a reduction of IFN-gamma/LPS inducibility by >90% and also impaired iron mediated regulation of the iNOS promoter. Our results provide evidence that this NF-IL6 binding site is of central importance for maintaining a high transcriptional rate of the iNOS gene after IFN-gamma/LPS stimulation, and that NF-IL6 may cooperate with hypoxia inducible factor-1 in the orchestration of iron-mediated regulation of iNOS.
The Journal of Immunology 05/1999; 162(10):6171-7. · 4.92 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.