The effect of the combination of locking screws and non-locking screws on the torsional properties of a locking-plate construct
ABSTRACT Little is known about the torsional properties of bone-plate constructs when a combination of locking and non-locking screws have been used. Sixty cadaveric canine femurs were divided into three groups. In the first group, the plate was affixed using three non-locking screws. In the second group, only locking screws were used while a combination of one locking and two non-locking screws were used in the third group. All constructs were subjected to torsion until failure. Torque, angle of torsion, and work were all calculated at the maximum failure point, as well as at five degrees of plastic deformation, which was thought to be more representative of clinical failure. At the maximum failure point, the locking group had significantly higher torque, angle, and work values than the non-locking group. The combination group was intermediate to the two other groups, and significantly differed from the non-locking group in torque, and from the locking group in work. At five degrees of plastic deformation, the locking group required significantly higher torque and work than the non-locking group. The combination group required a significantly higher torque than the non-locking group. This study suggests that a construct composed of all locking screws will fail at a greater torque value, and sustain greater work to failure in torsion compared to a construct composed of all non-locking screws. The addition of a single locking screw to an otherwise non-locking construct will increase the torque at the offset failure point and may be of clinical value in constructs subjected to high torsional loads.
SourceAvailable from: Jérôme Benamou[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the effects of screw type (mono- [M] versus bicortical [B]), number, and position on torsional stability of String of Pearls (SOP) locking plate constructs.Study DesignIn vitro mechanical study.MethodsSOP plates (n = 32) were applied to bone models and divided into 8 groups named according to screw type (M or B) and position in each fragment relative to the fracture gap starting at the outermost plate hole. Positive and negative controls were MMM and BBB, respectively. Specimens were non-destructively tested in torsion. Compliance and angular deformation were statistically compared (P < .002).ResultsThe MMM construct was most compliant (P < .001). Compliance decreased in groups with a single bicortical screw (P < .001). Compared to the MMM group, torsional compliance decreased in constructs where a single monocortical screw was replaced with a bicortical screw (P < .001). Compared with a centrally positioned bicortical screw, constructs with a bicortical screw in either outer- or innermost position were 15% and 23% less compliant, respectively (P < .001). Addition of a second bicortical screw/fragment further decreased compliance (P < .001). No significant difference was found between groups with 2 bicortical screws. The BBB construct was least compliant (P < .001). Group responses for angular deformation followed the same pattern of significance recorded for compliance.ConclusionsA minimum of 1 bicortical screw/fragment should be used to increase torsional stability of 3.5 mm SOP constructs. Positioning this screw at the inner- or outermost positions relative to the fracture is preferred, with the innermost position providing the greatest improvement in stability. Should further torsional stability be desired, increasing the number of bicortical screws is recommended. Clinically, these results may assist with preoperative planning of various fracture patterns.Veterinary Surgery 09/2014; DOI:10.1111/j.1532-950X.2014.12273.x · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the efficacy and complication rate associated with use of a purpose-specific locking triple pelvic osteotomy (LTPO) plate.Study DesignProspective study.AnimalsDogs (n = 9; 15 hips).Methods Physical examination, plain film radiography, computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis, and coxofemoral arthroscopy were performed before unilateral triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) or staged bilateral TPO. Radiographs were taken after each procedure and 3–5, 6–8, and ≥12 weeks postoperatively. Pelvic width was measured at 3 locations to evaluate pelvic canal narrowing.ResultsNo screw loosening occurred. Complications occurred in only 1 hip (7%) where pullout of the locking plate–screw construct from the caudal iliac segment occurred because of a fracture of the cis-cortex; the dog made a full recovery after a salvage procedure. There was no significant reduction in the cranial pelvic width but a small reduction at the level of the acetabuli and ischiatic tuberosities was noted 3–5 weeks after the 2nd TPO.Conclusions The LTPO plate was associated with a lower complication rate than previously reported for TPOs using Slocum canine pelvic osteotomy plates (CPOP) and warrants further investigation. Pullout of the caudal plate–screw construct is a complication specific to LTPO implants. Bicortical screw purchase is recommended to prevent fracture of the cis-cortex and implant pullout.Veterinary Surgery 01/2012; 41(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1532-950X.2011.00927.x · 0.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate if the use of locking head screws (LHS) in the distal holes of a locking compression plate (LCP) applied to the caudal aspect of the ulna to treat equine ulnar fractures is associated with a risk of injury to the lateral cortex of the radius. Controlled laboratory study. Cadaveric equine forelimbs (n = 8 pair). After transverse ulnar osteotomy, osteosynthesis was performed with a narrow 10-13 hole 4.5/5.0 LCP applied to the caudal aspect of each ulna. The distal 3 holes were filled with 4.5 mm cortex screws (CS) in 1 limb (group 1) and with 5.0 mm LHS contralaterally (group 2). CS were inserted in an angle deemed appropriate by the surgeon and LHS were inserted perpendicular to the plate. Implant position and injury to the lateral cortex of the radius were assessed by radiography, CT, and limb dissection. In group 1, injury of the lateral radius cortex did not occur. In group 2, 4 limbs and 6/24 LHS were associated with injury of the lateral radius cortex by penetration of a LHS. This difference was statistically significant. CS were inserted with a mean angle of 17.6° from the sagittal plane in a caudolateral-craniomedial direction. Use of LHS in the distal part of a LCP applied to the caudal aspect of the ulna is associated with a risk of inadvertent injury to the lateral cortex of the radius.Veterinary Surgery 09/2013; DOI:10.1111/j.1532-950X.2013.12059.x · 0.99 Impact Factor