Islet Inflammation Impairs the Pancreatic β-Cell in Type 2 Diabetes
ABSTRACT Onset of Type 2 diabetes occurs when the pancreatic beta-cell fails to adapt to the increased insulin demand caused by insulin resistance. Morphological and therapeutic intervention studies have uncovered an inflammatory process in islets of patients with Type 2 diabetes characterized by the presence of cytokines, immune cells, beta-cell apoptosis, amyloid deposits, and fibrosis. This insulitis is due to a pathological activation of the innate immune system by metabolic stress and governed by IL-1 signaling. We propose that this insulitis contributes to the decrease in beta-cell mass and the impaired insulin secretion observed in patients with Type 2 diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: Immunologic and inflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a negative regulator of the immune response. This study evaluates the 14 bp Del/Ins HLA-G polymorphism in ACS and DM2. Three hundred and seventy individuals from Western Mexico were recruited and categorized into three groups: ACS (86), DM2 without coronary complications (70), and healthy subjects (214). Genotyping of the 14 bp Del/Ins HLA-G polymorphism was performed by PCR and Native-PAGE. The most common risk factors were hypertension and overweight in ACS and DM2, respectively. The genetic distribution of the 14 bp Del/Ins HLA-G polymorphism showed no significant differences between groups (P ≥ 0.23). Nonetheless, the Ins/Ins genotype was associated with high blood pressure (HBP) in the DM2 group (ORc = 1.65, P = 0.02). The genetic recessive model showed similar findings (ORc = 3.03, P = 0.04). No association was found in ACS, with a P of 0.05; nevertheless, the prevalence of Ins/Ins carriers was quite similar to that found in the DM2-HBP group. The 14 bp Del/Ins HLA-G polymorphism was not a susceptibility factor for ACS or DM2; however, the Ins/Ins genotype might have contributed to the development of HBP in the studied groups.BioMed Research International 02/2014; 2014:898159. DOI:10.1155/2014/898159 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by progressive β-cell dysfunctioning and insulin resistance. This article reviews recent literature with special focus on inflammatory mechanisms that provoke the pathogenesis of T2DM. We have focused on the recent advances in progression of T2DM including various inflammatory mechanisms that might induce inflammation, insulin resistance, decrease insulin secretion from pancreatic islets and dysfunctioning of β-cells. Here we have also summarized the role of various pro-inflammatory mediators involved in inflammatory mechanisms which may further alter the normal structure of β-cells by inducing pancreatic islet's apoptosis. In conclusion, it is suggested that the role of inflammation in pathogenesis of T2DM is crucial and cannot be neglected. Moreover, the insight of inflammatory responses in T2DM may provide a new gateway for the better treatment of diabetes mellitus. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 03/2013; 114(3). DOI:10.1002/jcb.24402 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been considered as an auto-inflammatory syndrome. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) has attained considerable attention due to its broad spectrum anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects against various auto-immune diseases. The purpose of our study was to investigate its therapeutic effects of IL-1Ra on none-obese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. We administered IL-1Ra subcutaneously for one month into GK rats. Insulin sensitivity and β-cell function was calculated by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) models. IL-1Ra decreased the onset of hyperglycemia and did not impact the body weight and/or food intake. Insulin tolerance test (ITT) and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) results showed that IL-1Ra improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. The results of HOMA and QUICKI models revealed that IL-1Ra improved insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. Moreover, significant reduction of pro-insulin/insulin ratio and lipid profiles also exhibited significant therapeutic effects of IL-1Ra. Immunohistochemical analysis showed minimal macrophage infiltration in pancreatic islets demonstrating decreased intra-islet inflammation in IL-1Ra treated GK rats. The results of our present study revealed that IL-1Ra has broad spectrum therapeutic potentials but due to its short biological half-life (6-8h) high doses with frequent dosing intervals are required. Therefore, there is a need for the development of such dosage form that may prolong its half-life via extended release.European journal of pharmacology 01/2013; 701(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.01.008 · 2.68 Impact Factor