Clinical effectiveness of individual cognitive behavioral therapy for depressed older people in primary care: a randomized controlled trial.

Department of Mental Health Sciences, University College Medical School, Rowland Hill St, London NW3 2PF, England.
Archives of general psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.75). 12/2009; 66(12):1332-40. DOI: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.165
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In older people, depressive symptoms are common, psychological adjustment to aging is complex, and associated chronic physical illness limits the use of antidepressants. Despite this, older people are rarely offered psychological interventions, and only 3 randomized controlled trials of individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in a primary care setting have been published.
To determine the clinical effectiveness of CBT delivered in primary care for older people with depression.
A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial with 4- and 10-month follow-up visits.
A total of 204 people aged 65 years or older (mean [SD] age, 74.1 [7.0] years; 79.4% female; 20.6% male) with a Geriatric Mental State diagnosis of depression were recruited from primary care.
Treatment as usual (TAU), TAU plus a talking control (TC), or TAU plus CBT. The TC and CBT were offered over 4 months.
Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) scores collected at baseline, end of therapy (4 months), and 10 months after the baseline visit. Subsidiary measures were the Beck Anxiety Inventory, Social Functioning Questionnaire, and Euroqol. Intent to treat using Generalized Estimating Equation and Compliance Average Causal Effect analyses were used.
Eighty percent of participants were followed up. The mean number of sessions of TC or CBT was just greater than 7. Intent-to-treat analysis found improvements of -3.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], -5.73 to -0.42) and -3.65 (95% CI, -6.18 to -1.12) in BDI-II scores in favor of CBT vs TAU and TC, respectively. Compliance Average Causal Effect analysis compared CBT with TC. A significant benefit of CBT of 0.4 points (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.72) on the BDI-II per therapy session was observed. The cognitive therapy scale showed no difference for nonspecific, but significant differences for specific factors in therapy. Ratings for CBT were high (mean [SD], 54.2 [4.1]).
Cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for older people with depressive disorder and appears to be associated with its specific effects. Identifier: ISRCTN18271323.


Available from: Michael B King, Mar 19, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A medida que aumente la edad de la población, las cohortes sucesivas de adultos de edad avanzada sufrirán trastornos depresivos. La depresión a una edad avanzada comporta un riesgo adicional de suicidio, comorbilidad médica, discapacidad y carga de los familiares cuidadores. Aunque las tasas de respuesta y de remisión con la farmacoterapia y la terapia electroconvulsiva son comparables en los pacientes con depresión a una edad media de la vida, las tasas de recaída son más altas, lo cual subraya la dificultad que comporta alcanzar y mantener un estado de bienestar. En este artículo se revisa la base de evidencia existente respecto a las opciones de tratamiento de la depresión en el anciano y se presenta un análisis de las opciones terapéuticas disponibles para las variantes difíciles de tratar (p. ej., depresión psicótica, depresión vascular). Se revisan también los algoritmos de tratamiento basados en los factores predictivos de la respuesta, así como las nuevas opciones terapéuticas prometedoras.
    10/2012; 19(4):116-126. DOI:10.1016/j.psiq.2012.07.005
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We conducted a systematic literature review of anger management in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). We identified 2 studies that used randomized controlled trials and 6 that used pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group designs. The mean between-group effect size was 1.52 for randomized controlled trials and 0.89 for the other studies; however, no studies were well controlled. Thus, anger management is not an empirically supported treatment for individuals with ID. The need for further research in this area and methods of strengthening said research are discussed.
    Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities 01/2013; 6(1):60-70. DOI:10.1080/19315864.2011.637661
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Depression is associated with an increased use of medical resources and reduced quality of life, cognitive functions, functionality and general health. The treatment of depression is limited by the scarcity of mental health professionals, as reflected in the mental health atlas of the World Health Organization. Method A randomised controlled trial that was not blinded was conducted. Family doctors referred patients older than 60 years who were suspected to have depression to the screening module. The PHQ-9 questionnaire, the Six-Item Screener, and previous diagnosis for psychiatric disorders were collected. Major depression was excluded. Those with a score from two to six on the PHQ-9 and with no comorbidities were referred to the Baseline Phase. A simple random process without blocking was applied. Groups of 7-10 participants engaged in weekly sessions over the course of three months. The control group was referred to their family physician. Reduction in depression score of the PHQ-9 was the main outcome. Results and discussion There were 40 patients in the control group (CG) and 41 in the intervention group (IG). 84% were women, 41% married and 41% reported at least primary education. The mean age for the GC was 69.7 years vs. 71.3 in the GI. The baseline mean MMSE score was 23.7 in the GC and 24.1 in the IG. No significant baseline differences between groups were reported. In the IG, 56% of the participants (n=23) displayed a decrease that was greater than or equal to 5 points on the PHQ-9 compared with 30% (n=12) in the control group. The CT group evidenced a marginal improvement. Key words: Elderly, depression, cognitive therapy.
    Salud Mental 02/2015; 38(1):33-39. · 0.42 Impact Factor