Article

mTORC1-activated S6K1 phosphorylates Rictor on threonine 1135 and regulates mTORC2 signaling.

Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer, Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Molecular and Cellular Biology (Impact Factor: 5.04). 12/2009; 30(4):908-21. DOI: 10.1128/MCB.00601-09
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a conserved Ser/Thr kinase that forms two functionally distinct complexes important for nutrient and growth factor signaling. While mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) regulates mRNA translation and ribosome biogenesis, mTORC2 plays an important role in the phosphorylation and subsequent activation of Akt. Interestingly, mTORC1 negatively regulates Akt activation, but whether mTORC1 signaling directly targets mTORC2 remains unknown. Here we show that growth factors promote the phosphorylation of Rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR), an essential subunit of mTORC2. We found that Rictor phosphorylation requires mTORC1 activity and, more specifically, the p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). We identified several phosphorylation sites in Rictor and found that Thr1135 is directly phosphorylated by S6K1 in vitro and in vivo, in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Phosphorylation of Rictor on Thr1135 did not affect mTORC2 assembly, kinase activity, or cellular localization. However, cells expressing a Rictor T1135A mutant were found to have increased mTORC2-dependent phosphorylation of Akt. In addition, phosphorylation of the Akt substrates FoxO1/3a and glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha/beta (GSK3 alpha/beta) was found to be increased in these cells, indicating that S6K1-mediated phosphorylation of Rictor inhibits mTORC2 and Akt signaling. Together, our results uncover a new regulatory link between the two mTOR complexes, whereby Rictor integrates mTORC1-dependent signaling.

0 Followers
 · 
107 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Signaling via the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway influences CD4(+) T cell differentiation; low levels favor regulatory T cell induction and high levels favor Th induction. Although the lipid phosphatase phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) suppresses Akt activity, the control of PTEN activity is poorly studied in T cells. In this study, we identify multiple mechanisms that regulate PTEN expression. During Th induction, PTEN function is suppressed via lower mRNA levels, lower protein levels, and an increase in C-terminal phosphorylation. Conversely, during regulatory T cell induction, PTEN function is maintained through the stabilization of PTEN mRNA transcription and sustained protein levels. We demonstrate that differential Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling regulates PTEN transcription via the FoxO1 transcription factor. A mathematical model that includes multiple modes of PTEN regulation recapitulates our experimental findings and demonstrates how several feedback loops determine differentiation outcomes. Collectively, this work provides novel mechanistic insights into how differential regulation of PTEN controls alternate CD4(+) T cell fate outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1402554 · 5.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which the drug rapamycin inhibits the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is of intense interest because of its likely relevance in cancer biology, aging, and other age-related diseases. While rapamycin acutely and directly inhibits mTORC1, only chronic administration of rapamycin can inhibit mTORC2 in some, but not all, cell lines or tissues. The mechanism leading to cell specificity of mTORC2 inhibition by rapamycin is not understood and is especially important because many of the negative metabolic side effects of rapamycin, reported in mouse studies and human clinical trials, have been attributed recently to mTORC2 inhibition. Here, we identify the expression level of different FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs), primarily FKBP12 and FKBP51, as the key determinants for rapamycin-mediated inhibition of mTORC2. In support, enforced reduction of FKBP12 completely converts a cell line that is sensitive to mTORC2 inhibition to an insensitive cell line, and increased expression can enhance mTORC2 inhibition. Further reduction of FKBP12 in cell lines with already low FKBP12 levels completely blocks mTORC1 inhibition by rapamycin, indicating that relative FKBP12 levels are critical for both mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibition, but at different levels. In contrast, reduction of FKBP51 renders cells more sensitive to mTORC2 inhibition. Our findings reveal that the expression of FKBP12 and FKBP51 is the rate limiting factor that determines the responsiveness of a cell line or tissue to rapamycin. These findings have implications for treating specific diseases, including neurodegeneration and cancer, as well as targeting aging in general. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Aging Cell 02/2015; 14(2). DOI:10.1111/acel.12313 · 5.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase, which plays pivotal roles in integrating growth signals on a cellular level. To support proliferation and survival under stress, two interacting complexes that harbor mTOR, mTORC1 and mTORC2, promote the transcription of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and lipogenesis, enhance protein translation, and inhibit autophagy. Although rapamycin was originally developed as an inhibitor of T cell proliferation for preventing organ transplant rejection, its molecular target, mTOR, has been subsequently identified as a central regulator of metabolic cues that drive lineage specification in the immune system. Owing to oxidative stress, the activation of mTORC1 has emerged as a central pathway for the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases. Paradoxically, mTORC1 has also been identified as a mediator of the Warburg effect that allows cell survival under hypoxia. Rapamycin and new classes of mTOR inhibitors are being developed to block not only transplant rejection and autoimmunity but also to treat obesity and various forms of cancer. Through preventing these diseases, personalized mTOR blockade holds promise to extend life span. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/nyas.12756 · 4.31 Impact Factor