Insufficient sleep impairs driving performance and cognitive function.
ABSTRACT Cumulative sleep deprivation may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders, other disorders, and accidents. We examined the effect of insufficient sleep on cognitive function, driving performance, and cerebral blood flow in 19 healthy adults (mean age 29.2 years). All participants were in bed for 8h (sufficient sleep), and for <4h (insufficient sleep). The oxyhaemoglobin (oxyHb) level by a word fluency task was measured with a near-infrared spectroscopy recorder on the morning following sufficient and insufficient sleep periods. Wisconsin card sorting test, continuous performance test, N-back test, and driving performance were evaluated on the same days. The peak oxyHb level was significantly lower, in the left and right frontal lobes after insufficient sleep than after sufficient sleep (left: 0.25+/-0.13 vs. 0.74+/-0.33 mmol, P<0.001; right: 0.25+/-0.09 vs. 0.69+/-0.44 mmol, P<0.01). The percentage of correct responses on CPT after insufficient sleep was significantly lower than that after sufficient sleep (96.1+/-4.5 vs. 86.6+/-9.8%, P<0.05). The brake reaction time in a harsh-braking test was significantly longer after insufficient sleep than after sufficient sleep (546.2+/-23.0 vs. 478.0+/-51.2 ms, P<0.05). Whereas there were no significant correlations between decrease in oxyHb and the changes of cognitive function or driving performance between insufficient sleep and sufficient sleep. One night of insufficient sleep affects daytime cognitive function and driving performance and this was accompanied by the changes of cortical oxygenation response.
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ABSTRACT: In the present study we investigated whether one night of sleep deprivation can affect working memory (WM) performance with emotional stimuli. Twenty-five subjects were tested after one night of sleep deprivation and after one night of undisturbed sleep at home. As a second aim of the study, to evaluate the cumulative effects of sleep loss and of time-of-day changes on emotional WM ability, the subjects were tested every 4 h, from 22:00 to 10:00 hours, in four testing sessions during the sleep deprivation period (deprivation sessions: D1, D2, D3 and D4). Subjects performed the following test battery: Psychomotor Vigilance Task, 0-back task, 2-back task and an 'emotional 2-back task' with neutral, positive and negative emotional pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System. Results showed lower accuracy in the emotional WM task when the participants were sleep-deprived relative to when they had slept, suggesting the crucial role of sleep for preserving WM ability. In addition, the accuracy for the negative pictures remains stable during the sessions performed from 22:00 to 06:00 hours (D1, D2 and D3), while it drops at the D4 session, when the participants had accumulated the longest sleep debt. It is suggested that, during sleep loss, attentional and WM mechanisms may be sustained by the higher arousing characteristics of the emotional (negative) stimuli.Journal of Sleep Research 06/2014; 23(6). DOI:10.1111/jsr.12170 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that shift-work schedules cause severe disturbances to circadian rhythms and the sleep–wakefulness cycle, and that these changes in turn lead to cognitive and behavioral problems. The objective of this study is to explore the relationships between biological rhythm differences (chronotype) and impulsive behaviors and attention-deficit hyperactivity symptoms in shift workers. Seventy-nine nurses working in the daytime and 127 nurses working on night shifts were evaluated with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS), and Morningness–Eveningness questionnaire for identifying circadian preference. It was found that shift workers had more attention deficit (p .05) and impulsivity (p .01) when compared with daytime workers. Morning-type workers reported lower hyperactivity and ASRS total scores than evening- and intermediate-type workers. The mean impulsivity score of evening-type workers was higher than both the other groups (p .05). It has been shown that attention deficit, hyperactivity, and impulsivity levels that appear as a result of working shifts might change in accordance with the individual’s chronotype. It might, therefore, be desirable to evaluate an individual’s chronotype to establish suitability for working shifts.Biological Rhythm Research 01/2015; 46(1). DOI:10.1080/09291016.2014.948299 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To explore sleep risk factors and their association with adverse events in transportation operators. Self-reported sleep-related behaviors were analyzed in transportation operators (drivers, pilots, and rail operators) aged 26 to 78 years who completed the National Sleep Foundation's 2012 "Planes, Trains, Automobiles, and Sleep" survey. Regression analyses were used to assess the associations of various sleep-related variables with the combined outcome of self-reported accidents and near misses. Age- and body mass-adjusted predictors of accidents/near misses included an accident while commuting (odds ratio [OR] = 4.6; confidence interval [CI], 2.1 to 9.8), driving drowsy (OR = 4.1; CI, 2.5 to 6.7), and Sheehan Disability Scale score greater than 15 (OR = 3.5; CI, 2.2 to 5.5). Sleeping more than 7 hours nightly was protective for accident/near misses (OR = 0.6; CI, 0.4 to 0.9). Recognized risk factors for poor sleep or excessive daytime sleepiness were significantly associated with self-reported near misses and/or accidents in transportation operators.Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 05/2014; 56(5):510-5. DOI:10.1097/JOM.0000000000000132 · 1.80 Impact Factor