Loss of RegI in conjunction with gastrin deficiency in mice facilitates efficient gastric ulcer healing but is dispensable for hyperplasia and tumourigenesis.
ABSTRACT RegI (Regenerating islet derived-1) was originally characterized as a growth factor involved in pancreatic islet cell regeneration. It is also considered a gastrointestinal mitogen as its expression is increased during pathologies involving aberrant cell proliferation that can lead to neoplasia. However, the absolute requirement for RegI to directly stimulate gastric mucosal cell proliferation in vivo requires further investigation. We used RegI-deficient mice to determine the requirement for RegI in normal gastric mucosal development, wound healing, hyperplasia and tumourigenesis. We found that epithelial repair of acetic acid ulcers in compound mutant RegI/gastrin-deficient mice was significantly reduced compared to wild type, RegI-deficient or gastrin-deficient mice. In contrast, RegI was dispensable for normal gastric mucosal development, hyperplasia in HKbeta-deficient mice and tumourigenesis in gp130(F/F) mice. Although RegI was not required for proliferation in these pathological models, expression of multiple Reg family members were increased during gp130(F/F) tumourigenesis. Interestingly, loss of RegI in gp130(F/F) mice resulted in decreased expression of other Reg family members. Our results indicate that RegI and gastrin may synergistically regulate gastric mucosal proliferation during certain pathological settings like wound healing while gastric epithelial proliferation in other pathologies may require coordinated expression of multiple Reg genes.
SourceAvailable from: Anne-Fleur Caroline Andrle (Stephan)[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The regenerating (Reg) protein family comprises C-type lectin-like proteins discovered independently during pancreatitis and pancreatic islet regeneration. However, an increasing number of studies provide evidence of participation of Reg proteins in the proliferation and differentiation of diverse cell types. Moreover, Reg family members are associated with various pathologies, including diabetes and forms of gastrointestinal cancer. These findings have led to the emergence of key roles for Reg proteins as anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic and mitogenic agents in multiple physiologic and disease contexts. Yet, there are significant gaps in our knowledge regarding the regulation of expression of different Reg genes. In addition, the pathways relaying Reg-triggered signals, their targets and potential cross-talk with other cascades are still largely unknown. In this review, the expression patterns of different Reg members in the pancreas and extrapancreatic tissues are described. Moreover, factors known to modulate Reg levels in different cell types are discussed. Several signaling pathways, which have been implicated in conferring the effects of Reg ligands to date, are also delineated. Further efforts are necessary for elucidating the biological processes underlying the action of Reg proteins and their involvement in various maladies. Better understanding of the function of Reg genes and proteins will be beneficial in the design and development of therapies utilizing or targeting this protein group. Full Text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3348543/Biomolecular concepts 02/2012; 3(1):57-70. DOI:10.1515/bmc.2011.055
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ABSTRACT: l-Carnosine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CCIO NPs) have been prepared via co-precipitation of iron oxide in the presence of l-carnosine. Crystalline phase was identified as magnetite with an average crystallite size of 8nm as estimated from X-ray line profile fitting. Particle size estimated from TEM by log-normal fitting was ∼11nm. FTIR analysis showed that the binding of carnosine onto the surface of iron oxide is through unidentate linkage of carboxyl group. CCIO NPs showed superparamagnetic charactersitic at room temperature. The magnetic core size of superparamagnetic CCIO NPs was found slightly smaller than the size obtained from TEM, due to the presence of magnetically dead layer. Magnetization measurements revealed that l-carnosine iron oxide composite has immeasurable coercivity and remanence with absence of hysteritic behavior, which implies superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The low value of saturation magnetization compared to the bulk magnetite has been explained by spin canting. LDH activity tests showed slight cytotoxicity of high dose of CCIO NPs. The ac conductivity of CCIO NPs was found to be greater than that of carnosine and the effective conduction mechanism was found as correlated barrier hopping (CBH). dc activation energy of the product at around room temperature was measured as 0.312eV which was in good agreement with the earlier reports.Journal of Alloys and Compounds 02/2011; 509(5):2555-2561. DOI:10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.11.088 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gastrin is a hormone that physiologically regulates gastric acid secretion and contributes to the maintenance of gastric epithelial architecture by regulating the expression of genes such as regenerating gene 1 (Reg1). Reg1 is involved in gastric carcinogenesis as an antiapoptotic factor. The current study explores the molecular mechanism of gastrin-regulated Reg1 expression in human gastric cancer cells. In total, five intron fragments of the Reg1 gene were cloned by polymerase chain reaction and inserted into luciferase reporter vector pGL3 to construct intron-luciferase reporter vectors. After confirmation by Xho I/Hind III digestion and DNA sequencing, the five constructs were transfected into the SGC7901 gastric cancer cell line. The luciferase activity of the cells transfected with each of the five constructs was detected following incubation without or with gastrin. The five intron fragments of Reg1 were also randomly labeled with digoxin as a probe, and nuclear proteins of gastric cancer cells were extracted following treatment with or without gastrin. Southwestern blotting was subsequently performed to detect transcription factors that bind to the introns. The results indicated that the luciferase activity was significantly higher in cells transfected with recombinant vectors containing introns 2, 3, 4 or 5 than that in the cells transfected with an empty vector (P<0.05). However, no statistically significant difference in luciferase activity was identified between cells transfected with pGL3-intron 1 and those transfected with pGL3-Basic (P>0.05). Following incubation with gastrin, no significant difference was identified (P>0.05). The five introns of Reg1 can bind a number of transcription factors and gastrin may affect this interaction. Introns 2-5 of Reg1 potentially have transcriptional control over gene expression in gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, gastrin may regulate the expression of the Reg1 gene via the interaction of the introns by binding to the transcription factors.Oncology letters 02/2015; 9(2):875-880. DOI:10.3892/ol.2014.2712 · 0.99 Impact Factor