Osteoporosis prevention and nutrition

USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
Current Osteoporosis Reports 12/2009; 7(4):111-7. DOI: 10.1007/s11914-009-0020-5
Source: PubMed


Although calcium and vitamin D have been the primary focus of nutritional prevention of osteoporosis, recent research has clarified the importance of several additional nutrients and food constituents. Further, results of calcium and vitamin D supplementation trials have been inconsistent, suggesting that reliance on this intervention may be inadequate. In addition to dairy, fruit and vegetable intake has emerged as an important modifiable protective factor for bone health. Several nutrients, including magnesium, potassium, vitamin C, vitamin K, several B vitamins, and carotenoids, have been shown to be more important than previously realized. Rather than having a negative effect on bone, protein intake appears to benefit bone status, particularly in older adults. Regular intake of cola beverages shows negative effects and moderate alcohol intake shows positive effects on bone, particularly in older women. Current research on diet and bone status supports encouragement of balanced diets with plenty of fruit and vegetables, adequate dairy and other protein foods, and limitation of foods with low nutrient density.

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    • "À côté des carences en calcium et en vitamine D largement étudiées, la carence en protéines a un rôle déterminant. Un apport en protéines inférieur aux doses recommandées perturbe l'acquisition du capital osseux, mais aussi participe à la perte osseuse observée au cours du vieillissement [11]. Il existe une corrélation positive entre densité minérale osseuse (DMO) et apports protéiques [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: La dénutrition des personnes âgées est un problème de santé publique. La prévalence de la dénutrition, définie par l’insuffisance des apports protéino-énergétiques à couvrir les besoins métaboliques de l’organisme, est élevée et souvent méconnue chez les sujets âgés. C’est aussi une complication bien reconnue de nombreuses affections (cancers, sida, insuffisance cardiaque ou rénale, polyarthrite rhumatoïde (PR)…, etc.) dont elle marque un tournant pronostique puisqu’elle augmente le risque de mortalité et de nombreuses complications dont les fractures ostéoporotiques. En effet, la dénutrition est un facteur favorisant démontré de l’ostéoporose et la sarcopénie du sujet âgé. En outre, elle est associée à l’augmentation du risque de chutes en raison de la diminution des capacités musculaires et des réflexes de protection. Il faut ajouter à cela la minceur associée à la dénutrition qui réduit les couches de tissus mous protectrices exposant ainsi l’os ostéoporotique à une plus grande contrainte mécanique en cas de chute. Même s’il n’existe toujours pas de définition consensuelle sur les termes dénutrition, sarcopénie, fragilité ou cachexie, des outils simples permettent actuellement de dépister à un stade précoce et éventuellement de quantifier la perte de poids et de masse musculaire, éléments centraux communs à toutes ces pathologies.
    Revue du Rhumatisme Monographies 04/2013; 80(2):100-104. DOI:10.1016/j.monrhu.2012.11.005
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    • "Fruits also provide a wide range of 'bioactive' compounds important for human health, which include antioxidant carotenoids such as lycopene and various polyphenols such as anthocyanins. There is good evidence that fruits and vegetables promote healthy ageing by protecting against heart disease, osteoporosis and likely certain cancers (Oude Griep et al., 2010; Tan et al., 2010; Tucker, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Fruits are an important part of a healthy diet. They provide essential vitamins and minerals, and their consumption is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and certain cancers. These important plant products can, however, be expensive to purchase, may be of disappointing quality and often have a short shelf life. A major challenge for crop improvement in fleshy fruit species is the enhancement of their health-promoting attributes while improving quality and reducing postharvest waste. To achieve these aims, a sound mechanistic understanding of the processes involved in fruit development and ripening is needed. In recent years, substantial insights have been made into the mechanistic basis of ethylene biosynthesis, perception and signalling and the identity of master regulators of ripening that operate upstream of, or in concert with a regulatory pathway mediated by this plant hormone. The role of other plant hormones in the ripening process has, however, remained elusive, and the links between regulators and downstream processes are still poorly understood. In this review, we focus on tomato as a model for fleshy fruit and provide an overview of the molecular circuits known to be involved in ripening, especially those controlling pigment accumulation and texture changes. We then discuss how this information can be used to understand ripening in other fleshy fruit-bearing species. Recent developments in comparative genomics and systems biology approaches are discussed. The potential role of epigenetic changes in generating useful variation is highlighted along with opportunities for enhancing the level of metabolites that have a beneficial effect on human health.
    Plant Biotechnology Journal 09/2012; 11(3). DOI:10.1111/j.1467-7652.2012.00738.x · 5.75 Impact Factor
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    • "Recently, many dietary antioxidant nutrients have also been reported to decrease the oxidative stress that takes part in bone-resorptive processes (Rao et al., 2007; Weber, 2001; Peters & Martini, 2010; Macdonald et al., 2004). In addition to the antioxidant enzymes and nutrients, studies have also been directed towards the role of antioxidant phytochemicals such as the carotenoids in osteoporosis which will not be covered here, but has previously been reviewed (Rao & Rao, 2007; Sahni et al., 2009; Tucker, 2009). Fig. 1. "

    Phytochemicals - A Global Perspective of Their Role in Nutrition and Health, 03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0296-0
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