Does a small biopsied gastric specimen limit the usage of two directional transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy?
ABSTRACT It is difficult to approach certain gastric regions due to the limited bending ability of transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy (TN-EGD). We analyzed the TN-EGD biopsied specimens according to where they were obtained inside the stomach.
Two hundred and eighty-nine gastric biopsy specimens were obtained during diagnostic TN-EGD. The gastric biopsied specimens were quantified according to their diameter and depth in micrometers, and depth in layers (superficial mucosa, deep mucosa, muscularis mucosa and submucosa). The quality was measured by the degrees of anatomical orientation (good, intermediate and poor), presence of crush artifact (none to minimal, mild and moderate) and overall diagnostic adequacy (adequate, suboptimal and inadequate).
Poor orientation, presence of crush and overall diagnostic inadequacy were present in 33 (11.4%), 26 (9.0%) and 37 (12.8%) of the 289 specimens, respectively. Deep mucosa was present in 211 specimens (73.0%), while muscularis mucosa was present in only 75 specimens (26.0%). Specimens taken from the posterior aspect of the cardia exhibited the shallowest depth (P = 0.011), poorest orientation (P < 0.001) and poorest diagnostic adequacy (P < 0.001). Fluoroscopic findings demonstrated that the posterior aspect of the cardia was difficult to approach closely and perpendicularly because of the anatomical configuration of the stomach in nature.
TN-EGD biopsied specimens obtained from the posterior aspect of the cardia exhibit limitations in both quality and quantity. When performing a biopsy using two directional TN-EGD, special attention should be paid to gastric lesions located on the posterior aspect of the cardia.
- SourceAvailable from: bmj.com[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The influence of endoscopic forceps variables (size, design, and make) on biopsy specimen weight, depth, and diagnostic adequacy has been studied in vitro on normal human stomach, and in vivo at endoscopy in dog and in patients. Greater pressure during the biopsy procedure yielded significantly heavier, deeper, and histologically more acceptable specimens. Standard sized forceps (diameter 2.4 mm) and those with ellipsoid cups consistently produced larger specimens than the smaller 'paediatric' forceps (1.8 mm) and those with round cups. Deeper specimens were also obtained using the standard forceps. In vitro and in vivo in the dog, the standard sized forceps also produced specimens of greater diagnostic adequacy than the paediatric forceps. At endoscopy in patients, however, we could not detect any influence of the size, shape, and presence of forceps spike or fenestration on the diagnostic adequacy of the specimens.Gut 04/1985; 26(3):227-31. · 10.73 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with a small-caliber endoscope is well tolerated by patients. However, the effect of this procedure on cardiopulmonary function has not been fully investigated. The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to investigate the effect of transnasal EGD in comparison with transoral EGD on cardiopulmonary function. The study involved 450 patients referred for diagnostic EGD. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three types of unsedated EGD (150 patients per group): transnasal EGD using a small-caliber endoscope (the "XP-N" group), transoral EGD using the same small-caliber endoscope ("XP-O" group), and transoral EGD using a conventional endoscope ("XQ" group). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, and arterial oxygen saturation were monitored before, and 2, 4 and 6 minutes after intubation, and just after endoscope extubation. Gagging episodes were also counted, to determine tolerance. It was not possible to perform transnasal EGD in 12 patients (8.0%). A small amount of epistaxis was observed in eight (5.8%) of 138 patients who were examined successfully by transnasal EGD. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, rate-pressure product (pulse rate x systolic blood pressure/100), and the drop in arterial oxygen saturation in the XQ group were significantly greater than in the XP-N and XP-O groups at each time point. In the XP-N group, these parameters were significantly lower than those in the XP-O group at 2 minutes after intubation. Of the tree groups the number of gagging episodes was significantly lower in the XP-N group. Transnasal EGD is safer than transoral EGD as it is associated with fewer adverse effects on cardiopulmonary function and is better tolerated by patients.Endoscopy 01/2006; 37(12):1226-31. · 5.74 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the acceptance and tolerance of transnasal and peroral esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) using an ultrathin videoendoscope in unsedated patients. A total of 124 patients referred for diagnostic endoscopy were assigned randomly to have an unsedated transnasal EGD (n = 64) or peroral EGD (n = 60) with local anesthesia. An ultrathin videoendoscope with a diameter of 5.9 mm was used in this study. A questionnaire for tolerance was completed by the patient (a validated 0-10 scale where '0' represents no discomfort/well tolerated and '10' represents severe discomfort/poorly tolerated). Of the 64 transnasal EGD patients, 60 patients (94%) had a complete examination. Four transnasal EGD examinations failed for anatomical reasons; all four patients were successfully examined when switched to the peroral EGD. All 60 peroral EGD patients had a complete examination. Between the transnasal and peroral groups, there was a statistically significant difference in scores for discomfort during local anesthesia (1.5 +/- 0.2 vs 2.6 +/- 0.3, P = 0.003), discomfort during insertion (2.3 +/- 0.3 vs 4.3 +/- 0.3, P = 0.001), and overall tolerance during procedure (1.6 +/- 0.2 vs 3.8 +/- 0.2, P = 0.001). In all, 95% of transnasal EGD patients and 75% of peroral EGD patients (P = 0.002) were willing to undergo the same procedure in the future. Four patients in the transnasal EGD group experienced mild epistaxis. For unsedated endoscopy using an ultrathin videoendoscope, transnasal EGD is well tolerated and considerably reduces patient discomfort compared with peroral EGD.Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 05/2007; 22(4):482-5. · 3.33 Impact Factor