Juvenile xanthogranuloma presenting as a testicular mass in infancy: a clinical and pathologic study of three cases.
ABSTRACT Juvenile xanthogranulomas (JXG) is a histiocytic disorder whose most common clinical presentation is a solitary cutaneous nodule in a child under 5 years of age, but it has come to be recognized that solitary extracutaneous lesions may present in a number of sites, including the soft tissues and various organs. Involvement of the genitourinary tract has been documented in children with multifocal or systemic JXG. The current report describes our experience with 3 cases of JXG presenting as a solitary mass in the testicle of infants between 2.5 and 13 months without manifestations of JXG elsewhere. The masses were intratesticular and had an infiltrative pattern of interstitial growth by mononuclear, histiocyte-like cells with replacement of seminiferous tubules and involvement of the epididymis whose pattern resembled leukemic and lymphomatous involvement of the testis. Because extracutaneous lesions of JXG may have few or no Touton giant cells, immunohistochemistry is an important adjunct to the histopathologic diagnosis. One of the previous 2 cases in the literature of JXG of the testis recurred after partial resection without an orchiectomy. Neither of the 2 youngest patients has experienced a local recurrence of JXG elsewhere in excess of 1 year since the original orchiectomy. The oldest patient, who was treated with partial orchiectomy, remains free of recurrence after 3 months of follow-up. Though uncommon, JXG joins several other distinctive neoplasms presenting in the infantile testis.
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ABSTRACT: The spectrum of testicular tumors and tumor-like lesions that affect young patients (defined for purposes of this essay as less than 20 years old) differs significantly from that in an older age group. Although germ cell tumors remain the single largest category, they are a smaller proportion than in adults. Furthermore the pathogenesis and behavior of comparably named germ cell tumors differ depending on whether or not they have developed in prepubertal or postpubertal patients. This is most apparent for the teratomas, which are almost uniformly benign in children but, with some notable exceptions, malignant in the older patients. But even the most common malignant tumor of the testis in children, the yolk sac tumor, despite its identical morphology, lacks the association with other germ cell tumor types, including intratubular germ cell neoplasia, and more aggressive behavior that typify the adult tumors. Among the sex cord-stromal tumors, the juvenile granulosa cell tumor predominates in children, mostly occurs in those under 1 year old, and, for all intents and purposes, is not seen in the postpubertal period. It has a distinctive morphology and, to date, a uniformly benign outcome. There are additional tumors in the sex cord-stromal group that are mostly seen in young patients, including the large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor and intratubular large cell hyalinizing Sertoli cell neoplasia. The former is sometimes associated with the Carney syndrome and, to date, all of the latter with the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. The subtypes of lymphomas and leukemias that involve the testis in children are rare in older patients, and similar remarks pertain to the metastatic tumors, where neuroblastoma (especially) and Wilms’ tumor are most common but may be mimicked by primary tumors originating in the paratestis. The pseudoneoplastic lesion, the testicular “tumor” of the adrenogenital syndrome, is usually found in young patients and bears a strong resemblance to the Leydig cell tumor, although there are features that allow its distinction, which is important given its frequently bilateral nature and amenability to medical management through glucocorticoid administration. One of the preferential sites for embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is the paratestis of young patients, where the spindle cell variant predominates. The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor (retinal anlage tumor) usually occurs in the first year of life, typically involves the epididymis and uncommonly metastasizes. Occasional cases of the desmoplastic small round cell tumor present in the paratestis of teenagers, and some distinctive tumor-like lesions of the paratestis may also be seen, including meconium perirorchitis and splenic-gonadal fusion (occupying both testis and paratestis). These tumors and tumor-like lesions and many others are discussed in this review with the hope it will provide the diagnostic pathologist aid in recognizing the lesions and providing some insight into their clinical significance.Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology 07/2014; · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The goals of this study are to define the spectrum, incidence, and relative frequency of testicular and paratesticular lesions in a typical North American population of 6 million based on the analysis of pathology specimens. Twenty years of pathology reports from 1990 to 2009 of all testicular and paratesticular specimens were retrieved and analyzed from computerized databases of the single major pediatric hospital in the state of Indiana. We showed that the three most common benign lesions were vanishing testis, atrophy/cryptorchidism, and testis torsion, all showed left-sided predominance. The incidence and trends of the major pathology entities were also studied. Neoplasms represented roughly 10% of the total, with leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, teratoma, and mixed germ cell tumor occurring in decreasing frequency. Many of the neoplasms occurred at characteristic narrow age ranges, with overall interesting bimodal distribution or some with unique genetic background.Pathology - Research and Practice 04/2013; · 1.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a common histiocytic disorder of infancy and early childhood, most frequently presenting with cutaneous lesions. Whereas involvement of several visceral sites is well documented, only 4 cases of primary testicular JXG have been reported. Although this benign disorder typically presents with a favorable clinical outcome, the unusual presentation as an intratesticular lesion can lead to diagnostic challenges. In this study, we present the case of a 6-month-old male child with an incidentally discovered testicular mass that was diagnosed as a JXG and briefly review the existing literature in an attempt to bring awareness to this uncommon presentation.Urology 02/2014; · 2.13 Impact Factor