Pulmonary targeting microparticulate camptothecin delivery system: anticancer evaluation in a rat orthotopic lung cancer model.
ABSTRACT Large (>6 microm) rigid microparticles (MPs) become passively entrapped within the lungs after intravenous (i.v.) injection making them an attractive and highly efficient alternative to inhalation for pulmonary delivery. In this study, PEGylated 6 microm polystyrene MPs with multiple copies of the norvaline (Nva) alpha-amino acid prodrug of camptothecin (CPT) were prepared. Surface morphology was characterized using a scanning electron microscope. CPT was released from the CPT-Nva-MPs over 24 h in rat plasma at 37 degrees C. In-vivo CPT plasma concentrations were low (approximately 1 ng/ml or less) and constant over a period of 4 days after a single i.v. injection of CPT-Nva-MPs as compared with high but short-lived systemic exposures after an i.v. injection of free CPT. This suggests that sustained local CPT concentrations were achieved in the lung after administration of the MP delivery system. Anticancer efficacy was evaluated in an orthotopic lung cancer animal model and compared with a bolus injection of CPT. Animals receiving free CPT (2 mg/kg) and CPT-Nva-MPs (0.22 mg/kg CPT and 100 mg/kg MPs) were found to have statistically significant smaller areas of lung cancer (P<0.05 and 0.01, respectively) than untreated animals. In addition, 40% of the animals receiving CPT-Nva-MPs were found to be free of cancer. The CPT dose using targeted MPs was 10 times lower than after i.v. injection of free CPT, but was more effective in reducing the amount of cancerous areas. In conclusion, CPT-Nva-MPs were able to achieve effective local lung and low systemic CPT concentrations at a dose that was 10 times lower than systemically administered CPT resulting in a significant improvement in anticancer efficacy in an orthotopic rat model of lung cancer.
SourceAvailable from: G. Thirumurugan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To achieve the desired therapeutic objective, the drug product must deliver the active drug at an optimal rate and amount. By proper biopharmaceutic design, the rate and extent of drug absorption (also called as bioavailability) or the systemic delivery of drugs to the body can be varied from rapid and complete absorption to slow and sustained absorption depending upon the desired therapeutic objective. Phytomedicine have served as the foundation for a larger fraction of the current pharmacopeia. But the delivery of phytomedicine is always problematic due to poor aqueous solubility, poor permeation, low systemic availability, instability and extensive first pass metabolism. Current review will discuss in detail about how nanotechnology can enhance the bioavilability and bioactivity of the phytomedicine.Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 05/2014; 4(Suppl 1):S1-7.
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ABSTRACT: Plant based medicines are used from ancient time for treatment of diseases. In some cases desirable effect are not achived beacause the biological action of herbal medicine is due to phytoconstituents which can vary batch to batch. The amount of phytoconstituent in a plant can vary according to age of plant, time of collection, environmental condition etc. To overcome this problem standardized medicinal plants, plant extracts and isolated constiturnts can be used. But in case of most of herbal medicine stability as well as absorption is the limiting factor. Novel drug delivery system (NDDS) play very important role to overcome above mentioned issues. Moreover the patient compliance also increases.
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ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the most common and most fatal cancer worldwide. Thus, improving early diagnosis and therapy is necessary. Previously, gadolinium-based ultra-small rigid platforms (USRPs) were developed to serve as multimodal imaging probes and as radiosensitizing agents. In addition, it was demonstrated that USRPs can be detected in the lungs using ultrashort echo-time magnetic resonance imaging (UTE-MRI) and fluorescence imaging after intrapulmonary administration in healthy animals. The goal of the present study is to evaluate their theranostic properties in mice with bioluminescent orthotopic lung cancer, after intrapulmonary nebulization or conventional intravenous administration. It is found that lung tumors can be detected non-invasively using fluorescence tomography or UTE-MRI after nebulization of USRPs, and this is confirmed by histological analysis of the lung sections. The deposition of USRPs around the tumor nodules is sufficient to generate a radiosensitizing effect when the mice are subjected to a single dose of 10 Gy conventional radiation one day after inhalation (mean survival time of 112 days versus 77 days for irradiated mice without USRPs treatment). No apparent systemic toxicity or induction of inflammation is observed. These results demonstrate the theranostic properties of USRPs for the multimodal detection of lung tumors and improved radiotherapy after nebulization.Small 09/2014; 11(2). DOI:10.1002/smll.201401284 · 7.51 Impact Factor