Tablet-next generation sequence assembly visualization
ABSTRACT Tablet is a lightweight, high-performance graphical viewer for next-generation sequence assemblies and alignments. Supporting a range of input assembly formats, Tablet provides high-quality visualizations showing data in packed or stacked views, allowing instant access and navigation to any region of interest, and whole contig overviews and data summaries. Tablet is both multi-core aware and memory efficient, allowing it to handle assemblies containing millions of reads, even on a 32-bit desktop machine. AVAILABILITY: Tablet is freely available for Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS X, Linux and Solaris. Fully bundled installers can be downloaded from http://bioinf.scri.ac.uk/tablet in 32- and 64-bit versions.
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ABSTRACT: Identifying pathogen virulence genes required to cause disease is crucial to understand the mechanisms underlying the pathogenic process. Plasmid insertion mutagenesis of fungal protoplasts is frequently used for this purpose in filamentous ascomycetes. Post transformation, the mutant population is screened for loss of virulence to a specific plant or animal host. Identifying the insertion event has previously met with varying degrees of success, from a cleanly disrupted gene with minimal deletion of nucleotides at the insertion point to multiple-copy insertion events and large deletions of chromosomal regions. Currently, extensive mutant collections exist in laboratories globally where it was hitherto impossible to identify all the affected genes. We used a whole-genome sequencing (WGS) approach using Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology to investigate DNA tag insertion points and chromosomal deletion events in mutagenised, reduced virulence F. graminearum isolates identified in disease tests on wheat (Triticum aestivum). We developed the FindInsertSeq workflow to localise the DNA tag insertions to the nucleotide level. The workflow was tested using four mutants showing evidence of single and multi-copy insertions in DNA blot analysis. FindInsertSeq was able to identify both single and multi-copy concatenation insertion sites. By comparing sequencing coverage, unexpected molecular recombination events such as large tagged and untagged chromosomal deletions, and DNA amplification were observed in three of the analysed mutants. A random data sampling approach revealed the minimum genome coverage required to survey the F. graminearum genome for alterations. This study demonstrates that whole-genome re-sequencing to 22x fold genome coverage is an efficient tool to characterise single and multi-copy insertion mutants in the filamentous ascomycete Fusarium graminearum. In some cases insertion events are accompanied with large untagged chromosomal deletions while in other cases a straight-forward insertion event could be confirmed. The FindInsertSeq analysis workflow presented in this study enables researchers to efficiently characterise insertion and deletion mutants.BMC Genomics 04/2015; 16(1):261. DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1412-9 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Strand specific RNAseq data is now more common in RNAseq projects. Visualizing RNAseq data has become an important matter in Analysis of sequencing data. The most widely used visualization tool is the UCSC genome browser that introduced the custom track concept that enabled researchers to simultaneously visualize gene expression at a particular locus from multiple experiments. Our objective of the software tool is to provide friendly interface for visualization of RNAseq datasets. This paper introduces a visualization tool (RNASeqBrowser) that incorporates and extends the functionality of the UCSC genome browser. For example, RNASeqBrowser simultaneously displays read coverage, SNPs, InDels and raw read tracks with other BED and wiggle tracks -- all being dynamically built from the BAM file. Paired reads are also connected in the browser to enable easier identification of novel exon/intron borders and chimaeric transcripts. Strand specific RNAseq data is also supported by RNASeqBrowser that displays reads above (positive strand transcript) or below (negative strand transcripts) a central line. Finally, RNASeqBrowser was designed for ease of use for users with few bioinformatic skills, and incorporates the features of many genome browsers into one platform. The features of RNASeqBrowser: (1) RNASeqBrowser integrates UCSC genome browser and NGS visualization tools such as IGV. It extends the functionality of the UCSC genome browser by adding several new types of tracks to show NGS data such as individual raw reads, SNPs and InDels. (2) RNASeqBrowser can dynamically generate RNA secondary structure. It is useful for identifying non-coding RNA such as miRNA. (3) Overlaying NGS wiggle data is helpful in displaying differential expression and is simple to implement in RNASeqBrowser. (4) NGS data accumulates a lot of raw reads. Thus, RNASeqBrowser collapses exact duplicate reads to reduce visualization space. Normal PC's can show many windows of NGS individual raw reads without much delay. (5) Multiple popup windows of individual raw reads provide users with more viewing space. This avoids existing approaches (such as IGV) which squeeze all raw reads into one window. This will be helpful for visualizing multiple datasets simultaneously.BMC Genomics 03/2015; 16(1):145. DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1346-2 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sex in papaya is controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes. Females are XX, and two slightly different Y chromosomes distinguish males (XY) and hermaphrodites (XY(h)). The hermaphrodite-specific region of the Y(h) chromosome (HSY) and its X chromosome counterpart were sequenced and analyzed previously. We now report the sequence of the entire male-specific region of the Y (MSY). We used a BAC-by-BAC approach to sequence the MSY and resequence the Y regions of 24 wild males and the Y(h) regions of 12 cultivated hermaphrodites. The MSY and HSY regions have highly similar gene content and structure, and only 0.4% sequence divergence. The MSY sequences from wild males include three distinct haplotypes, associated with the populations' geographic locations, but gene flow is detected for other genomic regions. The Y(h) sequence is highly similar to one Y haplotype (MSY3) found only in wild dioecious populations from the north Pacific region of Costa Rica. The low MSY3-Y(h) divergence supports the hypothesis that hermaphrodite papaya is a product of human domestication. We estimate that Y(h) arose only ∼4000 yr ago, well after crop plant domestication in Mesoamerica >6200 yr ago but coinciding with the rise of the Maya civilization. The Y(h) chromosome has lower nucleotide diversity than the Y, or the genome regions that are not fully sex-linked, consistent with a domestication bottleneck. The identification of the ancestral MSY3 haplotype will expedite investigation of the mutation leading to the domestication of the hermaphrodite Y(h) chromosome. In turn, this mutation should identify the gene that was affected by the carpel-suppressing mutation that was involved in the evolution of males. © 2015 VanBuren et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.Genome Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1101/gr.183905.114 · 13.85 Impact Factor