Anti-inflammatory effect of retinoic acid on experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis
Department of Ophthalmology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. The British journal of ophthalmology
(Impact Factor: 2.98).
12/2009; 94(6):802-7. DOI: 10.1136/bjo.2009.171314
To determine whether an active metabolite of vitamin A, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), reduces inflammation in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU).
Naive CD4(+) T cells were activated with anti-CD3, anti-CD28 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, in the presence or absence of ATRA. Intracellular expression of transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) and interleukin (IL)-17 in the activated CD4(+) T cells was assessed by flow cytometry. C57BL/6 mice were immunised with human interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein peptide 1-20 (IRBP(1-20)). ATRA was administered intraperitoneally every other day (0.2 mg/mouse per day) from day 0 to day 21. In vivo-primed draining lymph node cells from vehicle-treated or ATRA-treated mice were stimulated with IRBP(1-20) and the culture supernatant fraction was harvested for assay of interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-17 by ELISA.
ATRA synergised with TGF-beta to induce Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells (Treg) and reciprocally inhibited development of IL-17-producing T helper cells (Th17) induced by TGF-beta and IL-6. ATRA treatment reduced the severity of EAU clinically, and IFN-gamma and IL-17 production were significantly reduced in ATRA-treated mice.
These findings demonstrate that ATRA treatment ameliorates severity of EAU and reduces the Th1/Th17 responses. ATRA may represent a new therapeutic modality for human refractory uveitis.
Available from: Narsing A Rao
- "These observations prompt the conclusion that αA administration may impact the retina in a more specific fashion where marked elevation of this cytokine (IL17) occurs during early phase of EAU development . This conclusion is supported by observations that IL-17 −/− mice show known reduced inflammation in EAU  and the recent report on the amelioration of the severity of EAU by all-trans retinoic acid, which inhibits the emergence of the IL17 producing Th17 cells . In light of this data an investigation into a molecular mechanistic link direct or indirect (via Th17 cells) between αA and IL17 expression will be rewarding. "
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ABSTRACT: The small heat shock protein, αA-crystallin null (αA-/-) mice are known to be more prone to retinal degeneration than the wild type mice in Experimental Autoimmune Uveoretinitis (EAU). In this report we demonstrate that intravenous administration of αA preserves retinal architecture and prevents photoreceptor damage in EAU. Interestingly, only αA and not αB-crystallin (αB), a closely related small heat shock protein works, pointing to molecular specificity in the observed retinal protection. The possible involvement of αA in retinal protection through immune modulation is corroborated by adaptive transfer experiments, (employing αA-/- and wild type mice with EAU as donors and Rag2-/- as the recipient mice), which indicate that αA protects against the autoimmune challenge by modulating the systemic B and T cell immunity. We show that αA administration causes marked reduction in Th1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-12 and IFN-γ), both in the retina and in the spleen; notably, IL-17 was only reduced in the retina suggesting local intervention. Importantly, expression of Toll-like receptors and their associated adaptors is also inhibited suggesting that αA protection, against photoreceptor loss in EAU, is associated with systemic suppression of both the adaptive and innate immune responses.
PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e33582. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033582 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new technique for downlink beamforming and power control in mobile communications is proposed. In the new algorithm, the transmitted power from the base station (BS) and the beamforming weights are obtained in two steps. First, the normalized downlink beamforming weights are obtained based on the estimation of the relative interfering strength so that the relative power of co-channel interference is minimized, and then the BS transmitted power is computed to minimize the total BS transmitted power. Simulation results show that the signal-to-noise-plus-interference ratio specifications at each mobile station are satisfied and that the proposed algorithm leads to a total BS transmitted power which is very close to that achieved with the optimum joint beamforming and power control algorithm. At the same time, the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is significantly lower than that of the optimum joint beamforming and power control algorithm.
Communications, Computers and signal Processing, 2003. PACRIM. 2003 IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on; 09/2003
Available from: Rachel R Caspi
Cytokine 10/2009; 48(1):6-6. DOI:10.1016/j.cyto.2009.07.027 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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