Cyclosporine-induced immune suppression alters establishment of HTLV-1 infection in a rabbit model
ABSTRACT Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes adult T-cell leukemia and several lymphocyte-mediated inflammatory diseases. Persistent HTLV-1 infection is determined by a balance between host immune responses and virus spread. Immunomodulatory therapy involving HTLV-1-infected patients occurs in a variety of clinical settings. Knowledge of how these treatments influence host-virus relationships is not understood. In this study, we examined the effects of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced immune suppression during early infection of HTLV-1. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were split into 4 groups. Three groups were treated with either 10 or 20 mg/kg CsA or saline before infection. The fourth group was treated with 20 mg/kg CsA 1 week after infection. Immune suppression, plasma CsA concentration, ex vivo lymphocyte HTLV-1 p19 production, anti-HTLV-1 serologic responses, and proviral load levels were measured during infection. Our data indicated that CsA treatment before HTLV-1 infection enhanced early viral expression compared with untreated HTLV-1-infected rabbits, and altered long-term viral expression parameters. However, CsA treatment 1 week after infection diminished HTLV-1 expression throughout the 10-week study course. Collectively, these data indicate immunologic control is a key determinant of early HTLV-1 spread and have important implications for therapeutic intervention during HTLV-1-associated diseases.
- SourceAvailable from: Rashade A H Haynes II[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human T-lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infects approximately 15 to 20 million people worldwide, with endemic areas in Japan, the Caribbean, and Africa. The virus is spread through contact with bodily fluids containing infected cells, most often from mother to child through breast milk or via blood transfusion. After prolonged latency periods, approximately 3 to 5% of HTLV-1 infected individuals will develop either adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), or other lymphocyte-mediated disorders such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The genome of this complex retrovirus contains typical gag, pol, and env genes, but also unique nonstructural proteins encoded from the pX region. These nonstructural genes encode the Tax and Rex regulatory proteins, as well as novel proteins essential for viral spread in vivo such as, p30, p12, p13 and the antisense encoded HBZ. While progress has been made in the understanding of viral determinants of cell transformation and host immune responses, host and viral determinants of HTLV-1 transmission and spread during the early phases of infection are unclear. Improvements in the molecular tools to test these viral determinants in cellular and animal models have provided new insights into the early events of HTLV-1 infection. This review will focus on studies that test HTLV-1 determinants in context to full length infectious clones of the virus providing insights into the mechanisms of transmission and spread of HTLV-1.Viruses 07/2011; 3(7):1131-65. DOI:10.3390/v3071131 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The host immune response is believed to tightly control viral replication of deltaretroviruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and bovine leukemia virus (BLV). However, this assumption has not been definitely proven in vivo. In order to further evaluate the importance of the immune response in the BLV model, we studied the fate of cells in which viral expression was transiently induced. Using a dual fluorochrome labeling approach, we showed that ex vivo induction of viral expression induces higher death rates of B cells in vivo. Furthermore, cyclosporine treatment of these animals indicated that an efficient immune response is required to control virus-expressing cells.Journal of Virology 01/2012; 86(1):621-4. DOI:10.1128/JVI.05718-11 · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an endemic retrovirus in southwestern Japan, which causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) or HTLV-1 associated myelopathy in a minority of carriers. Here, we investigated the impact of HTLV-1 status in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Twenty-six of 329 (7.9%) HTLV-1 carriers underwent primary LDLT. One recipient negative for HTLV-1 before LDLT received a graft from an HTLV-1 positive donor. Eight donors were HTLV-1 positive. Twenty-seven recipients (13 male and 14 female; mean age 52.5 years) were reviewed retrospectively. ATL developed in four recipients who ultimately died. The intervals between LDLT and ATL development ranged from 181 to 1315 days. Of the four ATL recipients, two received grafts from HTLV-1 positive donors and two from negative donors. The 1-, 3- and 5-year HTLV-1 carrier survival rates were 91.3%, 78.3% and 66.3%, respectively. Fulminant hepatic failure as a pretransplant diagnosis and a pretransplant MELD score ≥ 15 was identified as risk factors for ATL development in this study (p = 0.001 and p = 0.041, respectively). In conclusion, LDLT can be performed for HTLV-1 positive recipients. However, when fulminant hepatic failure is diagnosed, LDLT should not be performed until further studies have revealed the mechanisms of ATL development.American Journal of Transplantation 04/2012; 12(6):1479-85. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04037.x · 6.19 Impact Factor