APOE-epsilon4 is not associated with cognitive impairment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
ABSTRACT The objective of this article was to assess the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE)-epsilon4 and cognitive impairment (CI) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The APOE genotype was assessed in 85 RRMS cases (58 females, mean age 43 +/- 8.4 years, mean disease duration 15.8 +/- 9.6 years, mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 1.7 +/- 1.0). Cognitive functioning was evaluated in the whole sample using Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery (BRB). Performance on each test was assessed by applying the normative values for the Italian population. In a subgroup of 50 patients, a brain magnetic resonance (MR) study was performed including measurement of T2 lesion volumes (T2LV), neocortical volume (NCV) and normalized brain volume (NBV). The relationship between APOE genotype, CI and MR variables was assessed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. CI, most commonly involving complex attention and verbal memory tasks, was found in 28 cases (33%). We identified a total of 19 epsilon4carriers (22.4%), who did not differ from non-carriers regarding clinical and demographic characteristics. The presence of the epsilon4 genotype was associated with neither CI (p = 0.28) nor impairment on each neuropsychological test (p > 0.32; corrected for age, gender, disease duration, EDSS, depression and fatigue). The APOE genotype and CI were also not related in the subgroup of younger patients (age < 45 years; p > 0.9). Moreover, CI was related to higher T2LV (p = 0.008) and lower NCV (p = 0.006). In conclusion, in our sample CI was associated with higher subcortical damage and cortical atrophy but not with APOE-epsilon4 genotype. The role of APOE-epsilon4 as a possible biomarker in multiple sclerosis is still questionable.
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ABSTRACT: Following emerging evidence that neurodegenerative processes in multiple sclerosis (MS) are present from its early stages, an intensive scientific interest has been directed to biomarkers of neuro-axonal damage in body fluids of MS patients. Recent research has introduced new candidate biomarkers but also elucidated pathogenetic and clinical relevance of the well-known ones. This paper reviews the existing data on blood and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of neuroaxonal damage in MS and highlights their relation to clinical parameters, as well as their potential predictive value to estimate future disease course, disability, and treatment response. Strategies for future research in this field are suggested.Multiple sclerosis international. 01/2011; 2011:767083.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate whether cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is associated to different patterns of gray matter (GM) atrophy and T2-visible lesion distribution according to the clinical phenotype. Twenty-two relapsing remitting (RR), 29 secondary progressive (SP), and 22 primary progressive (PP) MS patients, and 39 healthy controls underwent high-field structural magnetic resonance imaging and an extensive neuropsychological battery. Voxel-wise distribution of GM damage and T2-lesions was compared between cognitively impaired (CI) and cognitively preserved (CP) patients according to their clinical phenotype. Thirty-nine MS patients were CI. In all MS groups, regional GM loss was correlated with cognitive impairment. Different patterns of regional distribution of GM atrophy and T2-visible lesions were found between CI vs. CP MS patients, according to their clinical phenotype. No areas were significantly more atrophied in CI SPMS vs. CI RRMS patients. Conversely, compared with CI PPMS, CI SPMS patients had a significant GM loss in several regions of the fronto-temporal lobes, the left hypothalamus and thalami. While in RRMS and SPMS patients there was a correspondence between presence of T2 visible lesions and GM atrophy in several areas, this was not the case in PPMS patients. Distinct patterns of regional distribution of GM damage and T2-visible lesions are associated with cognitive impairment in MS patients with different clinical phenotypes. The correspondence between lesion formation and GM atrophy distribution varies in the different forms of MS.Human Brain Mapping 10/2011; 32(10):1535-43. · 6.88 Impact Factor
Article: Fármacos e infertilidad: revisión[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: IntroductionWe performed a study of drugs associated with infertility.Revue Neurologique - REV NEUROL. 01/2012;