APOE-epsilon4 is not associated with cognitive impairment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
ABSTRACT The objective of this article was to assess the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE)-epsilon4 and cognitive impairment (CI) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The APOE genotype was assessed in 85 RRMS cases (58 females, mean age 43 +/- 8.4 years, mean disease duration 15.8 +/- 9.6 years, mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 1.7 +/- 1.0). Cognitive functioning was evaluated in the whole sample using Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery (BRB). Performance on each test was assessed by applying the normative values for the Italian population. In a subgroup of 50 patients, a brain magnetic resonance (MR) study was performed including measurement of T2 lesion volumes (T2LV), neocortical volume (NCV) and normalized brain volume (NBV). The relationship between APOE genotype, CI and MR variables was assessed through univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. CI, most commonly involving complex attention and verbal memory tasks, was found in 28 cases (33%). We identified a total of 19 epsilon4carriers (22.4%), who did not differ from non-carriers regarding clinical and demographic characteristics. The presence of the epsilon4 genotype was associated with neither CI (p = 0.28) nor impairment on each neuropsychological test (p > 0.32; corrected for age, gender, disease duration, EDSS, depression and fatigue). The APOE genotype and CI were also not related in the subgroup of younger patients (age < 45 years; p > 0.9). Moreover, CI was related to higher T2LV (p = 0.008) and lower NCV (p = 0.006). In conclusion, in our sample CI was associated with higher subcortical damage and cortical atrophy but not with APOE-epsilon4 genotype. The role of APOE-epsilon4 as a possible biomarker in multiple sclerosis is still questionable.
- SourceAvailable from: Stephen M Rao[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives. To examine relationships between conventional MRI measures and the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) and symbol digit modalities test (SDMT). Methods. A systematic literature review was conducted. Included studies had ≥30 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, administered the SDMT or PASAT, and measured T2LV or brain atrophy. Meta-analysis of MRI/information processing speed (IPS) correlations, analysis of MRI/IPS significance tests to account for reporting bias, and binomial testing to detect trends when comparing correlation strengths of SDMT versus PASAT and T2LV versus atrophy were conducted. Results. The 39 studies identified frequently reported only significant correlations, suggesting reporting bias. Direct meta-analysis was only feasible for correlations between SDMT and T2LV (r = -0.45, P < 0.001) and atrophy in patients with mixed-MS subtypes (r = -0.54, P < 0.001). Familywise Holm-Bonferroni testing found that selective reporting was not the source of at least half of significant results reported. Binomial tests (P = 0.006) favored SDMT over PASAT in strength of MRI correlations. Conclusions. A moderate-to-strong correlation exists between impaired IPS and MRI in mixed MS populations. Correlations with MRI were stronger for SDMT than for PASAT. Neither heterogeneity among populations nor reporting bias appeared to be responsible for these findings.Multiple sclerosis international. 01/2014; 2014:975803.
Article: Fármacos e infertilidad: revisión[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: IntroductionWe performed a study of drugs associated with infertility.Revue Neurologique - REV NEUROL. 01/2012;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) has been considered to have detrimental effects on the age of onset and progression in Alzheimer's disease. Evidence continues to accumulate regarding the effects of ApoE isoforms in a number of other neurological diseases. Recent studies demonstrate an increase in cognitive deficits in ApoE4 patients with traumatic brain injury, cerebrovascular disease, and delirium. Evidence of the role ApoE isoforms played in cognition in multiple sclerosis has illuminated the neurodegenerative aspects of this disease. It further provides evidence of the effect neuroinflammation has in increasing susceptibility to cognitive decline in younger patients. Determining where these diverse diseases intersect and diverge in their relationship to ApoE provides insight into the two-hit mechanism in cognitive decline.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 08/2013; · 3.61 Impact Factor