[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combination chemotherapy and nanoparticle drug delivery are two areas that have shown significant promise in cancer treatment. Combined therapy of two or more drugs promotes synergism among the different drugs against cancer cells and suppresses drug resistance through distinct mechanisms of action. Nanoparticle drug delivery, on the other hand, enhances therapeutic effectiveness and reduces side effects of the drug payloads by improving their pharmacokinetics. These two active research fields have been recently merged to further improve the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. This review article summarizes the recent efforts in developing nanoparticle platforms to concurrently deliver multiple types of drugs for combination chemotherapy. We also highlight the challenges and design specifications that need to be considered in optimizing nanoparticle-based combination chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biodegradable or bioresorbable polymers are commonly used in various pharmaceutical fields (e.g., as drug delivery systems, therapeutic systems or macromolecular drug conjugates). Polyesters are an important class of polymers widely utilized in pharmacy due to their biodegradability and biocompatibility features. In recent years, there has been increased interest in enzyme-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization (e-ROP) of cyclic esters as an alternative method of preparation of biodegradable or bioresorbable polymers. Ionic liquids (ILs) have been presented as green solvents in enzymatic ring-opening polymerization. The activity, stability, selectivity of enzymes in ILs and the ability to catalyze polyester synthesis under these conditions are discussed. Overall, the review demonstrates that e-ROP of lactones or lactides could be an effective method for the synthesis of useful biomedical polymers.
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