Article

# Linear and nonlinear quantification of respiratory sinus arrhythmia during propofol general anesthesia.

Neuroscience Statistics Research Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 01/2009; 2009:5336-9. DOI: 10.1109/IEMBS.2009.5332693 Source: PubMed

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**ABSTRACT:**We present a comprehensive probabilistic point process framework to estimate and monitor the instantaneous heartbeat dynamics as related to specific cardiovascular control mechanisms and hemodynamics. Assessment of the model's statistics is established through the Wiener-Volterra theory and a multivariate autoregressive (AR) structure. A variety of instantaneous cardiovascular metrics, such as heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and baroreceptor-cardiac reflex (BRS), can be rigorously derived within a parametric framework and instantaneously updated with an adaptive algorithm. Instantaneous metrics of nonlinearity, such as the bispectrum of heartbeat intervals, can also be derived. We have applied the proposed point process framework to experimental recordings from healthy subjects in order to monitor cardiovascular regulation under propofol anesthesia. Results reveal interesting dynamic trends across different pharmacological interventions, confirming the ability of the algorithm to track important changes in cardiorespiratory elicited interactions, and pointing at our mathematical approach as a promising monitoring tool for an accurate, noninvasive assessment of general anesthesia.Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 08/2011; 2011:8444-7. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Heart rate variability (HRV) has been observed to decrease during anesthesia, but changes in HRV during loss and recovery of consciousness have not been studied in detail. In this study, HRV dynamics during low-dose propofol (N = 10) and dexmedetomidine (N = 9) anesthesia were estimated by using time-varying methods. Standard time-domain and frequency-domain measures of HRV were included in the analysis. Frequency-domain parameters like low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) component powers were extracted from time-varying spectrum estimates obtained with a Kalman smoother algorithm. The Kalman smoother is a parametric spectrum estimation approach based on time-varying autoregressive (AR) modeling. Prior to loss of consciousness, an increase in HF component power indicating increase in vagal control of heart rate (HR) was observed for both anesthetics. The relative increase of vagal control over sympathetic control of HR was overall larger for dexmedetomidine which is in line with the known sympatholytic effect of this anesthetic. Even though the inter-individual variability in the HRV parameters was substantial, the results suggest the usefulness of HRV analysis in monitoring dexmedetomidine anesthesia.Annals of Biomedical Engineering 03/2012; 40(8):1802-13. - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**In recent years, time-varying inhomogeneous point process models have been introduced for assessment of instantaneous heartbeat dynamics as well as specific cardiovascular control mechanisms and hemodynamics. Assessment of the model's statistics is established through the Wiener-Volterra theory and a multivariate autoregressive (AR) structure. A variety of instantaneous cardiovascular metrics, such as heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and baroreceptor-cardiac reflex (baroreflex) sensitivity (BRS), are derived within a parametric framework and instantaneously updated with adaptive and local maximum likelihood estimation algorithms. Inclusion of second-order non-linearities, with subsequent bispectral quantification in the frequency domain, further allows for definition of instantaneous metrics of non-linearity. We here present a comprehensive review of the devised methods as applied to experimental recordings from healthy subjects during propofol anesthesia. Collective results reveal interesting dynamic trends across the different pharmacological interventions operated within each anesthesia session, confirming the ability of the algorithm to track important changes in cardiorespiratory elicited interactions, and pointing at our mathematical approach as a promising monitoring tool for an accurate, non-invasive assessment in clinical practice. We also discuss the limitations and other alternative modeling strategies of our point process approach.Frontiers in Physiology 01/2012; 3:4.

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