Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention.
ABSTRACT In the absence of an effective vaccine, HIV continues to spread worldwide, emphasizing the need for new biomedical interventions to limit its transmission. Appreciation of the challenges that HIV has to face to initiate an infection mucosally has spurred interest in evaluating the use of antiretroviral drugs to prevent infection. Recent animal studies using macaques or humanized mice models of mucosal transmission of SIV or HIV have shown that daily or intermittent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) can exploit early virus vulnerabilities and effectively prevent establishment of infection. These preclinical findings have fueled interest in evaluating the safety and efficacy of PrEP in humans. We provide an overview of the rationale behind PrEP and discuss the next steps in PrEP research, including the need to better define the ability of current drugs to reach and accumulate in mucosal tissues and protect cells that are primary targets during early HIV infection.
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ABSTRACT: To assess the real-world implications of oral tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in clinical practice and highlight important considerations for its implementation. A search of PubMed (January 1996 through June 2013) was conducted using the terms HIV preexposure prophylaxis, HIV prevention, tenofovir, and emtricitabine. Abstracts from 2012-2013 HIV/AIDS conferences were also reviewed. All pertinent original studies and review articles published in English were evaluated for inclusion. Reference citations from identified articles were examined for additional content. Although antiretroviral therapy has been highly successful in reducing AIDS outcomes and death in HIV-infected patients worldwide, transmission of HIV remains a major global health problem. The recent approval of oral TDF-FTC for HIV PrEP represents the latest biomedical intervention to help control this epidemic. Four published randomized studies evaluated the efficacy and safety of this combination to prevent HIV transmission in several at-risk populations, including men who have sex with men, serodiscordant couples, and heterosexuals residing in endemic regions. Overall, these studies demonstrated significant risk reductions in the incidence of new HIV infections with good short-term tolerability. Despite promising results from clinical studies, several limitations may hinder the utility of PrEP in clinical practice. Most importantly, PrEP was studied in the context of a comprehensive prevention program, including intensive counseling on adherence, high-risk behaviors, and traditional preventative measures. If PrEP is implemented without these adjunct measures, concerns about failure and increased resistance may eventually be realized. The greatest impact of PrEP, both clinically and financially, will likely arise from judicious application in select high-risk populations. If used appropriately, PrEP has the potential to augment reductions in the current incidence of new HIV infections, and pharmacists will have an important role in the careful selection and counseling of these targeted populations.Annals of Pharmacotherapy 01/2014; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The last few years have witnessed a renewed commitment to HIV prevention. The evidence to support the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of new HIV infection in the form of Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men, transgender, people who inject drugs, heterosexual men and women and HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, or treatment as prevention (TasP) for serodiscordant couples have also grown. The need to explore the possible use of ART for HIV prevention in Nigeria has become imperative in view of its high HIV burden and the current slow pace of effort to achieve the universal target of reducing its HIV incidence by 50%. While PrEP and TasP are welcome addendum to the existing HIV prevention armamentarium, it is still important to conduct a demonstration project to identify strategies that can facilitate access to PrEP and TasP taking cognizance of the peculiar local challenges with respect to ART and HIV prevention commodity access. The country has therefore drawn a roadmap for itself on how to introduce ART for use for HIV prevention as either PrEP or TasP. This paper discusses the three year national roadmap that would enable the country generated the needed scientific evidence as well as extensive community support for use of ART for HIV prevention in Nigeria. This process includes the conduct of modeling and formative studies, and the implementation of a 24 months demonstration project. The outcome of the demonstration project would inform plans for the scale up of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) access for population(s) at high risk for HIV infection in Nigeria.African Journal of Reproductive Health 09/2014; 18(3):127.
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ABSTRACT: The intersecting epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and partner violence disproportionately affect women who use drugs. Despite accumulating evidence throughout the world linking these epidemics, HIV prevention efforts focused on these synergistic issues as well as underlying determinants that contribute to the HIV risk environment (eg, housing instability, incarceration, policing practices, survival sex) are lacking. This article highlights selected behavior change theories and biomedical approaches that have been used or could be applied in HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women with histories of partner violence and in existing HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women that have been gender-focused while integrating histories of partner violence and/or relationship power dynamics. To date, there is a paucity of HIV prevention interventions designed for drug-using women (both in and outside of drug treatment programs) with histories of partner violence. Of the few that exist, they have been theory-driven, culture-specific, and address certain aspects of gender-based inequalities (eg, gender-specific norms, relationship power and control, partner violence through assessment of personal risk and safety planning). However, no single intervention has addressed all of these issues. Moreover, HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women with histories of partner violence are not widespread and do not address multiple components of the risk environment. Efficacious interventions should target individuals, men, couples, and social networks. There is also a critical need for the development of culturally tailored combination HIV prevention interventions that not only incorporate evidence-based behavioral and biomedical approaches (eg, microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis, female-initiated barrier methods) but also take into account the risk environment at the physical, social, economic and political levels. Ultimately, this approach will have a significant impact on reducing HIV infections among drug-using women with histories of partner violence.Substance abuse and rehabilitation. 01/2012; 3(Suppl 1):45-57.