Individual differences, aging, and IQ in two-choice tasks.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, United States.
Cognitive Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.05). 12/2009; 60(3):127-57. DOI: 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2009.09.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in three two-choice tasks: numerosity discrimination, recognition memory, and lexical decision. The experimental data, accuracy, correct and error response times, and response time distributions, were well explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model. The components of processing identified by the model were compared across levels of IQ (ranging from 83 to 146) and age (college students, 60-74, and 75-90 year olds). Declines in performance with age were not significantly different for low compared to high IQ subjects. IQ but not age had large effects on the quality of the evidence that was obtained from a stimulus or memory, that is, the evidence upon which decisions were based. Applying the model to individual subjects, the components of processing identified by the model for individuals correlated across tasks. In addition, the model's predictions and the data were examined for the "worst performance rule", the finding that age and IQ have larger effects on slower responses than faster responses.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recognition memory z-transformed Receiver Operating Characteristic (zROC) functions have a slope less than 1. One way to accommodate this finding is to assume that memory evidence is more variable for studied (old) items than non-studied (new) items. This assumption has been implemented in signal detection models, but this approach cannot accommodate the time course of decision making. We tested the unequal-variance assumption by fitting the diffusion model to accuracy and response time (RT) distributions from nine old/new recognition data sets comprising previously-published data from 376 participants. The η parameter in the diffusion model measures between-trial variability in evidence based on accuracy and the RT distributions for correct and error responses. In fits to nine data sets, η estimates were higher for targets than lures in all cases, and fitting results rejected an equal-variance version of the model in favor of an unequal-variance version. Parameter recovery simulations showed that the variability differences were not produced by biased estimation of the η parameter. Estimates of the other model parameters were largely consistent between the equal- and unequal-variance versions of the model. Our results provide independent support for the unequal-variance assumption without using zROC data.
    Journal of Memory and Language 01/2014; 70:36–52. · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the redundant target effect, participants respond faster with two (redundant) targets. We compared the magnitude of this effect in younger and older adults, with and without distractors, in a simple visual-detection task. We employed additional measures that allow non-parametric assessment of performance (Townsend's capacity coefficient) and parametric estimates (Linear Ballistic Accumulator model). Older participants' latencies were slower, especially in the presence of distractors, and their calculated capacity indicators increased with distractors. Parametric estimates indicated that these increases were generated by the older adults' increased difficulty in inhibiting the distractors, and not the results of either improved detection of redundant-targets, or of a generalized slowing of processing.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12). · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reaction time (RT) is one of the most commonly used measures of neurological function and dysfunction. Despite the extensive studies on it, no study has ever examined the RT in the ankle. Twenty-two subjects were recruited to perform simple, 2- and 4-choice RT tasks by visually guiding a cursor inside a rectangular target with their ankle. RT did not change with spatial accuracy constraints imposed by different target widths in the direction of the movement. RT increased as a linear function of potential target stimuli, as would be predicted by Hick–Hyman law. Although the slopes of the regressions were similar, the intercept in dorsal–plantar (DP) direction was significantly smaller than the intercept in inversion–eversion (IE) direction. To explain this difference, we used a hierarchical Bayesian estimation of the Ratcliff’s (Psychol Rev 85:59, 1978) diffusion model parameters and divided processing time into cognitive components. The model gave a good account of RTs, their distribution and accuracy values, and hence provided a testimony that the non-decision processing time (overlap of posterior distributions between DP and IE < 0.045), the boundary separation (overlap of the posterior distributions < 0.1) and the evidence accumulation rate (overlap of the posterior distributions < 0.01) components of the RT accounted for the intercept difference between DP and IE. The model also proposed that there was no systematic change in non-decision processing time or drift rate when spatial accuracy constraints were altered. The results were in agreement with the memory drum hypothesis and could be further justified neurophysiologically by the larger innervation of the muscles controlling DP movements. This study might contribute to assessing deficits in sensorimotor control of the ankle and enlighten a possible target for correction in the framework of our on-going effort to develop robotic therapeutic interventions to the ankle of children with cerebral palsy.
    Experimental Brain Research 07/2014; · 2.17 Impact Factor


1 Download
Available from