Individual differences, aging, and IQ in two-choice tasks.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, United States.
Cognitive Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.57). 12/2009; 60(3):127-57. DOI: 10.1016/j.cogpsych.2009.09.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in three two-choice tasks: numerosity discrimination, recognition memory, and lexical decision. The experimental data, accuracy, correct and error response times, and response time distributions, were well explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model. The components of processing identified by the model were compared across levels of IQ (ranging from 83 to 146) and age (college students, 60-74, and 75-90 year olds). Declines in performance with age were not significantly different for low compared to high IQ subjects. IQ but not age had large effects on the quality of the evidence that was obtained from a stimulus or memory, that is, the evidence upon which decisions were based. Applying the model to individual subjects, the components of processing identified by the model for individuals correlated across tasks. In addition, the model's predictions and the data were examined for the "worst performance rule", the finding that age and IQ have larger effects on slower responses than faster responses.

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