Protection against focal ischemic injury to the brain by trans-sodium crocetinate: Laboratory investigation

Department of Neuroscience, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.
Journal of Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 3.74). 12/2009; 113(4):802-9. DOI: 10.3171/2009.10.JNS09562
Source: PubMed


Ischemic injury is a potential complication in a variety of surgical procedures and is a particular impediment to the success of surgeries involving highly vulnerable neural tissue. One approach to limiting this form of injury is to enhance metabolic supply to the affected tissue. Trans-sodium crocetinate (TSC) is a carotenoid compound that has been shown to increase tissue oxygenation by facilitating the diffusivity of small molecules, such as oxygen and glucose. The present study examined the ability of TSC to modify oxygenation in ischemic neural tissue and tested the potential neuroprotective effects of TSC in permanent and temporary models of focal cerebral ischemia.
Adult male rats (330–370 g) were subjected to either permanent or temporary focal ischemia by simultaneous occlusion of both common carotid arteries and the left middle cerebral artery (3-vessel occlusion [3-VO]). Using the permanent ischemia paradigm, TSC was administered intravenously beginning 10 minutes after the onset of ischemia at 1 of 8 dosages, ranging from 0.023 to 4.580 mg/kg. Cerebral infarct volume was measured 24 hours after the onset of ischemia. The effect of TSC on infarct volume was also tested after temporary (2-hour) ischemia using a dosage of 0.092 mg/kg. In other animals undergoing temporary ischemia, tissue oxygenation was monitored in the ischemic penumbra using a Licox probe.
Administration of TSC reduced infarct volume in a dose-dependent manner in the permanent ischemia model, achieving statistical significance at dosages ranging from 0.046 to 0.229 mg/kg. The most effective dosage of TSC in the permanent ischemia experiment (0.092 mg/kg) was further tested using a temporary (2-hour) ischemia paradigm. Infarct volume was reduced significantly by TSC in this ischemia-reperfusion model as well. Recordings of oxygen levels in the ischemic penumbra of the temporary ischemia model showed that TSC increased tissue oxygenation during vascular occlusion, but reduced the oxygen overshoot (hyperoxygenation) that occurs upon reperfusion.
The novel carotenoid compound TSC exerts a neuroprotective influence against permanent and temporary ischemic injury when administered soon after the onset of ischemia. The protective mechanism of TSC remains to be confirmed; however, the permissive effect of TSC on the diffusivity of small molecules is a plausible mechanism based on the observed increase in tissue oxygenation in the ischemic penumbra. This represents a form of protection based on “metabolic reflow” that can occur under conditions of partial vascular perfusion. It is particularly noteworthy that TSC could conceivably limit the progression of a wide variety of cellular injury mechanisms by blunting the ischemic challenge to the brain.

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Available from: Ryon Clarke, Mar 06, 2014
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    • "Vehicle or TSC was administered using a " bolus– infusion–bolus " protocol (Okonkwo et al., 2003; Manabe et al., 2010). The total dosage of TSC administered was 0.092 mg/kg, which was selected based on a dose-response assessment of the protective actions of TSC (Manabe et al., 2010). Blood gas levels, blood pressure, and rectal temperature were monitored during surgery. "
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    ABSTRACT: Trans-sodium crocetinate (TSC) is a novel carotenoid compound capable of enhancing the diffusion of small molecules in aqueous solutions. TSC improves the diffusion of oxygen and glucose, and increases oxygenation in ischemic brain tissue. TSC also dampens the intensity of an ischemic challenge during an ongoing ischemic event. The current study examined the impact of TSC in rat models of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Rat three vessel occlusion (3VO), and combined 3VO and one vessel occlusion (3VO/1VO) models of ischemic stroke were evaluated for structural and behavioral outcomes. The effects of TSC were also tested in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Delayed treatment with TSC reduced infarct volume in a rodent model of transient focal ischemia involving either 2 or 6 hours of ischemia. Neurological outcomes, based on a multi-scale assessment and automated gait analysis, also were improved by TSC treatment. Additionally, TSC reduced edema and hemorrhagic volume in a rat model of ICH. An optimal therapeutic candidate for early intervention in ischemic stroke should be effective when administered on a delayed basis and should not aggravate outcomes associated with hemorrhagic stroke. The current findings demonstrate that delayed TSC treatment improves outcomes in experimental models of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Together, these findings suggest that TSC may be a safe and beneficial therapeutic modality for early stroke intervention, irrespective of the type of stroke involved.
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    ABSTRACT: Intratumoral hypoxia is believed to be exhibited in high-grade gliomas. Trans sodium crocetinate (TSC) has been shown to increase oxygen diffusion to hypoxic tissues. In this research, the authors use oxygen-sensitive PET studies to evaluate the extent of hypoxia in vivo in a glioblastoma model and the effect of TSC on the baseline oxygenation of the tumor. The C6 glioma cells were stereotactically implanted in the right frontal region of rat brains. Formation of intracranial tumors was confirmed on MR imaging. Animals were injected with Copper(II) diacetyl-di(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ATSM) and then either TSC or saline (6 rats each). Positron emission tomography imaging was performed, and relative uptake values were computed to determine oxygenation within the tumor and normal brain parenchyma. Additionally, TSC or saline was infused into the animals, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) and hypoxia-inducing factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein expression were measured 1 day afterward. On PET imaging, all glioblastoma tumors demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in uptake of Cu-ATSM compared with the contralateral cerebral hemisphere (p = 0.000002). The mean relative uptake value of the tumor was 3900 (range 2203-6836), and that of the contralateral brain tissue was 1017 (range 488-2304). The mean relative hypoxic tumor volume for the saline group and TSC group (6 rats each) was 1.01 ± 0.063 and 0.69 ± 0.062, respectively (mean ± SEM, p = 0.002). Infusion of TSC resulted in a 31% decrease in hypoxic volume. Immunoblot analysis revealed expression of HIF-1α and CA9 in all tumor specimens. Some glioblastomas exhibit hypoxia that is demonstrable on oxygen-specific PET imaging. It appears that TSC lessens intratumoral hypoxia on functional imaging. Further studies should explore relative hypoxia in glioblastoma and the potential therapeutic gains that can be achieved by lessening hypoxia during delivery of adjuvant treatment.
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