Testing Posttraumatic Stress as a Mediator of Physical, Sexual, and Psychological Intimate Partner Violence and Substance Problems Among Women

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
Journal of Traumatic Stress (Impact Factor: 2.72). 12/2009; 22(6):575-84. DOI: 10.1002/jts.20474
Source: PubMed


This study examined whether posttraumatic stress specifically resulting from intimate partner violence (IPV-related posttraumatic stress) mediated relationships between types of IPV and drug and alcohol problems among 212 women currently experiencing IPV. Six-month prevalence was high for drug use (48%) and alcohol use (59%). Structural equation modeling revealed that the frequency of physical, sexual, and psychological IPV were significantly and positively related to greater IPV-related posttraumatic stress, and IPV-related posttraumatic stress was significantly and positively related to drug problems. Further, IPV-related posttraumatic stress mediated the relationships between physical IPV and drug problems and psychological IPV and drug problems. Findings suggest that prevention and intervention efforts targeting posttraumatic stress among IPV-exposed women may reduce drug problems in this population.

Download full-text


Available from: Julia D Buckner, Feb 11, 2014
23 Reads
  • Source
    • "It was the main motivation to develop this study. In addition, international studies among women showed that Intimate Partner Violence is related to greater post-traumatic stress disorder symptom severity [1] [2]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to describe women’s experiences with gender violence and the impact on mental health. The research was a qualitative observational study. Participants were n = 72 women clients of (02) Primary Health Centers at the University of Carabobo-Venezuela. The technique to gather the information was focus group discussion (FGD). The interpretation of data was an analytical process based on Mayring’s approach. The principal findings showed that, women clients of primary health centers experienced different levels of violence in everyday life. Physical violence was the most frequent abuse reported by victims. Death threats were the most frequent conduct used by the partners in terms of psychological violence. Women expressed being under the control of a dominant partner without physical aggression or threats, but they felt a lack of autonomy. Additionally, women who experienced different levels of abuse specified some symptoms that could suggest an impact on mental health. In conclusion, women naturalized dominance and control because they understood this kind of abuse as normal behavior between relationship partners.
    Open Journal of Nursing 02/2015; 5(2):104-108. DOI:10.4236/ojn.2015.52012
  • Source
    • "Therefore, it is essential that they be examined simultaneously, which rarely has been done, so that their differential associations to substance use problems among IPVvictimized women can be determined. Third, although IPV is consistently related to anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and substance use (e.g., Calvete, Corral, & Estevez, 2008; Pico-Alfonso et al., 2006; Sullivan, Ashare, Jaquier, & Tennen, 2012; Sullivan et al., 2009), and although anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptom severity and disorders are related to substance use disorders and problems (e.g., Golder et al., 2012; Hien et al., 2009; Schneider et al., 2009; Stuart et al., 2006), the pathways of IPV to substance use through anxiety and posttraumatic stress remain insufficiently researched among IPV-victimized women. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to examine the relationships among IPV types, anxiety symptom severity, posttraumatic stress symptom severity, and alcohol and drug use problems in a sample of community women experiencing IPV. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examines effects of psychological, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) to alcohol and drug problems through anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptom severity among 143 community women currently experiencing IPV. Anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptom severity had unique effects on alcohol and drug problems. Higher anxiety symptom severity and higher physical IPV severity were associated with greater alcohol and drug problems. Higher posttraumatic stress symptom severity was associated with greater alcohol and drug problems. Mediation analyses indicated (a) significant indirect pathways of IPV types to alcohol problems through posttraumatic stress symptom severity controlling for anxiety symptom severity, and (b) significant indirect pathways of IPV types to drug problems through anxiety symptom severity controlling for posttraumatic stress symptom severity. In examining the indirect pathways of psychological, physical, and sexual IPV to substance use problems this study highlights that anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptom severity have unique effects on alcohol and drug problems among women experiencing IPV.
    Anxiety Stress & Coping 01/2015; 28(4):445-455. DOI:10.1080/10615806.2014.968562 · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In general, most studies examining the relationship of more proximal factors (substance use, psychological distress) and aggression (NPA or PA) either did not include more distal factors in the analyses or did not attempt to examine the interrelationships and relative impact of both distal and proximal factors (Chermack et al., 2001, 2009; Chermack, Fuller, et al., 2000; DeMaris, Benson, Fox, Hill, & Van Wyk, 2003; Schumm, O'Farrell, Murphy, Murphy, & Muchowski, 2011; Testa et al., 2012; Walton et al., 2002). Although prior studies have shown associations between either distal or proximal factors related to aggression, common limitations include: (1) a focus on only one gender (e.g., males perpetrating aggression) (Murphy et al., 2005; Schumacher et al., 2013; Schumm et al., 2009; Sullivan et al., 2009), (2) a focus on only PA or using combined aggression measures that do not distinguish relationship type (Chermack, Fuller, et al., 2000; Chermack, Wryobeck, et al., 2006), and (3) using other combined measures (e.g., collapsing across paternal and maternal alcohol problems, using measures of childhood behavioral problems that collapse across aggressive and non-aggressive problem behaviors, drug use measures that combine use of different types of substances) (Chermack et al., 2008; Chermack, Stoltenberg, et al., 2000; DeMaris et al., 2003; Haber et al., 2010; Hussong et al., 2007; Kachadourian, Homish, Quigley, & Leonard, 2012; Schumacher et al., 2013). Further, studies have tended to examine a limited set of potentially important distal and proximal factors (Chermack, Stoltenberg, et al., 2000; Chermack, Wryobeck, et al., 2006; Sullivan, Cavanaugh, Ufner, Swan, & Snow, 2013) and thus have not included multiple domains of risk in the same model. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies of violence in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment settings typically focus on partner aggression (PA) although non-partner aggression (NPA) is also a common problem. This study examines potentially distinct paths of distal and proximal risk factors related to aggression towards non-partners (NPA) and partners (PA) among a SUD treatment sample. The sample included 176 adults reporting past-year violence. Bivariate analyses indicated several distal and proximal factors were associated with NPA and PA. According to multivariate, multiple mediation analyses youth aggression history was a factor for both NPA and PA. Alcohol and cocaine use and psychological distress were associated with NPA; marijuana use was associated with PA. There also was evidence of indirect effects of distal factors on NPA and PA. The results suggest that there may be substantially different dynamics associated with NPA and PA, and have implications for developing screening, assessment and treatment protocols targeting violence among individuals in SUD treatment.
    Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jsat.2014.05.005 · 3.14 Impact Factor
Show more