Article

Time to First Cigarette after Waking Predicts Cotinine Levels

Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.32). 12/2009; 18(12):3415-20. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0737
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is wide variability in cotinine levels per cigarette smoked. We hypothesized that in addition to smoking frequency, other behavioral measures of nicotine dependence, such as the time to first cigarette after waking, are associated with cotinine levels. To test this hypothesis, we measured plasma and urinary cotinine in a community-based study of 252 black and white daily cigarette smokers. Among one pack per day smokers, plasma cotinine levels varied from 16 to 1,180 ng/mL, a 74-fold difference. Two nicotine dependence phenotypes were discerned by time after waking. Subjects in the "low" dependent phenotype smoked >30 minutes after waking and nearly all smoked < or =20 cigarettes per day. Cotinine levels increased linearly with cigarette consumption in this group. Subjects in the "high" dependent phenotype smoked < or =30 minutes after waking but had a wide range in the frequency of daily cigarettes (6-70). Compared with the low dependent phenotype, there were relatively small differences in cotinine by cigarette frequency with evidence of a plateau effect in heavy smokers ( approximately 30). After adjusting for cigarette frequency, the levels of cotinine by time to first cigarette were as follows: < or =5 minutes, 437 [95% confidence limits (CL), 380-494]; 6 to 30 minutes, 352 (95% CL, 291-413), 31 to 60 minutes, 229 (95% CL, 140-317), and >60 minutes, 215 (95% CL, 110-321). Similar findings were observed for urinary cotinine. These findings suggest that the time to first cigarette is a strong predictor of nicotine uptake and should be considered in the design of smoking interventions.

Full-text

Available from: Ralph S Caraballo, Jun 02, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
171 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Targeting smokers at higher lung cancer risk can improve efficiency and reduce false-positive detection in lung cancer screening. We evaluated whether time to first cigarette after waking (TTFC), a single-item measure of nicotine dependency, could improve stratification of lung cancer risk beyond standard smoking metrics (intensity, duration, and pack-years). Methods In 3249 ever-smokers (n = 1812 case subjects; n = 1437 control subjects) from a population-based case-control study in Italy, we examined the association between TTFC and lung cancer using logistic regression and estimated lung cancer incidence by levels of TTFC, and intensity, duration, and pack-years using absolute risk regression. Significance tests were two-sided. Results Compared with smokers with TTFC greater than 60 minutes, the lung cancer odds ratios for TTFC of 31 to 60 minutes, 6 to 30 minutes, and 5 or fewer minutes (by increasing dependency) were 2.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.03 to 3.26), 2.27 (95% CI = 1.79 to 2.88), and 3.50 (95% CI = 2.64 to 4.64), respectively (P-trend < .0001). The average lung cancer incidence rates for smokers of 1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30 and more than 30 cigarettes per day were consistently higher among smokers with TTFC of 60 or fewer minutes vs more than 60 minutes (64.1 vs 11.7; 125.6 vs 28.6; 130.1 vs 40.7; and 260.8 vs 108.9 per 100 000 person-years, respectively). The slopes of increase in lung cancer rates with smoking duration and pack-years were statistically significantly greater among smokers with higher dependency (P-interaction < .001). Conclusions Lung cancer risk increases with shorter TTFC; this simple nicotine dependency measure increases lung cancer risk stratification beyond standard smoking measures. Assessing TTFC may improve lung cancer risk prediction and could be useful in lung cancer screening and smoking cessation programs.
    JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 06/2014; 106(6). DOI:10.1093/jnci/dju118 · 15.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ADVERTIMENT. La consulta d'aquesta tesi queda condicionada a l'acceptació de les següents condicions d'ús: La difusió d'aquesta tesi per mitjà del servei TDX (www.tdx.cat) ha estat autoritzada pels titulars dels drets de propietat intel·lectual únicament per a usos privats emmarcats en activitats d'investigació i docència. No s'autoritza la seva reproducció amb finalitats de lucre ni la seva difusió i posada a disposició des d'un lloc aliè al servei TDX. No s'autoritza la presentació del seu contingut en una finestra o marc aliè a TDX (framing). Aquesta reserva de drets afecta tant al resum de presentació de la tesi com als seus continguts. En la utilització o cita de parts de la tesi és obligat indicar el nom de la persona autora. ADVERTENCIA. La consulta de esta tesis queda condicionada a la aceptación de las siguientes condiciones de uso: La difusión de esta tesis por medio del servicio TDR (www.tdx.cat) ha sido autorizada por los titulares de los derechos de propiedad intelectual únicamente para usos privados enmarcados en actividades de investigación y docencia. No se autoriza su reproducción con finalidades de lucro ni su difusión y puesta a disposición desde un sitio ajeno al servicio TDR. No se autoriza la presentación de su contenido en una ventana o marco ajeno a TDR (framing). Esta reserva de derechos afecta tanto al resumen de presentación de la tesis como a sus contenidos. En la utilización o cita de partes de la tesis es obligado indicar el nombre de la persona autora. WARNING. On having consulted this thesis you're accepting the following use conditions: Spreading this thesis by the TDX (www.tdx.cat) service has been authorized by the titular of the intellectual property rights only for private uses placed in investigation and teaching activities. Reproduction with lucrative aims is not authorized neither its spreading and availability from a site foreign to the TDX service. Introducing its content in a window or frame foreign to the TDX service is not authorized (framing). This rights affect to the presentation summary of the thesis as well as to its contents. In the using or citation of parts of the thesis it's obliged to indicate the name of the author.
  • Article: Response.