Feline gingivostomatitis (FGS) is a common syndrome in cats; feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), and Bartonella species are common differential diagnoses. In this study, blood from 70 cats with FGS and 61 healthy control cats was tested for Bartonella species antibodies in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot immunoassay and DNA in blood using a conventional polymerase chain reaction assay. Additionally, fresh oral biopsies from cats with FGS (n=42) and 19 healthy controls were tested for FCV RNA, FHV-1 DNA and Bartonella species DNA. The prevalence rates for Bartonella species antibodies and DNA in the blood and the tissues did not differ between the two groups. FHV-1 DNA was also not significantly different between groups. Only FCV RNA was present in significantly more cats with FGS (40.5%) than control cats (0%). The results suggest that FCV was associated with FGS in some of the cats.
"Clinical signs of LPGS include ptyalism, pain, pawing at the mouth, halitosis, bleeding, weight loss, dysphagia, and dysorexia. The condition may even require euthanasia because of poor quality of life (Arzi et al., 2010; Dowers et al., 2010). Abnormal immunological reactions caused by genetic predispositions, environmental stresses, physiological factors, nutritional factors (Tenorio et al., 1991; Lyon, 2005), or viral infection (Kobayashi et al., 2008) have all been correlated with LPGS. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feline lymphocytic-plasmacytic gingivitis/stomatitis (LPGS) or caudal stomatitis is an inflammatory disease that causes painfully erosive lesions and proliferations of the oral mucosa. The disease is difficult to cure and can affect cats at an early age, resulting in lifetime therapy. In this study, a new treatment using a combination of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) oral spray and oral piroxicam was investigated using a randomized double-blinded clinical trial in 13 cats with caudal stomatitis. Oral lesion grading and scoring of clinical signs were conducted during and after the trial to assess treatment outcome. Oral mucosal biopsies were used to evaluate histological changes during and after treatment.
Clinical signs were significantly improved in 77% of the cats. In a 4-week study, clinical signs were considerably ameliorated by oral piroxicam during the first 2 weeks. In a 12-week study, the combined bLf oral spray and piroxicam, when compared to piroxicam alone, exhibited an enhanced effect that reduced the severity of the oral lesions (P = 0.059), while also significantly improving clinical signs (P < 0.05), quality of life (P < 0.05), and weight gain (P < 0.05). The remission of oral inflammation was closely correlated with the decreased number of macrophages (OR = 4.719, P <0 .05). There was no detectable influence on liver or kidney function during a 12-week assessment. It was concluded that combining oral bLf spray and piroxicam was safe and might be used to decrease the clinical signs of caudal stomatitis in cats.
The Veterinary Journal 10/2014; 202(1). DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.06.006 · 1.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To provide a review of clinically relevant observations related to Bartonella species as emerging pathogens in veterinary and human medicine.
Literature as cited in PubMed and as generated by each of the authors who have contributed to various aspects of the clinical understanding of bartonellosis.
Important historical and recent publications illustrating the evolving role of animal reservoirs as a source of human infection.
Comprehensive review of the veterinary literature.
In addition to inducing life-threatening illnesses, such as endocarditis, myocarditis, and meningoencephalitis and contributing to chronic debilitating disease, such as arthritis, osteomyelitis, and granulomatous inflammation in cats, dogs, and potentially other animal species; pets and wildlife species can serve as persistently infected reservoir hosts for the transmission of Bartonella spp. infection to veterinary professionals and others with direct animal contact.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study's objective was to determine whether a relationship exists between infection or seropositivity to Bartonella species and clinical illness in cats. Blood samples were obtained for Bartonella species isolation and immunofluorescent antibody serology from 298 cats presenting to a tertiary referral hospital. Medical records were searched and the history, physical examination findings and the results of diagnostic testing relating to the visit at which Bartonella species testing was performed were recorded. Fifty-two (17%) samples were seropositive for Bartonella henselae, four (1%) for Bartonella clarridgeiae, and 57 (19%) for both organisms. Nineteen (6.4%) samples were culture positive, 17 for B henselae and two for B clarridgeiae. Gingivostomatitis was associated with Bartonella species isolation (P=0.001), but not seropositivity. There was no association with uveitis, neurologic signs, or chronic kidney disease, and a weak association between seropositivity and idiopathic lower urinary tract disease (feline interstitial cystitis) (P=0.05).
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