Distinct loci on chromosome 1q21 and 6q22 predispose to familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer: A SNP array-based linkage analysis of 38 families
ABSTRACT Familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) is associated with earlier onset and more aggressive behavior than its sporadic counterpart. Although candidate chromosomal loci have been proposed for isolated families with variants of FNMTC, the etiology of most cases is unknown. We aimed to identify loci linked to FNMTC susceptibility using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array-based linkage analysis in a broad sampling of affected families.
We enrolled and pedigreed 38 FNMTC families. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 110 relatives, and hybridized to Affymetrix SNP arrays. We performed genotyping and linkage analysis, calculating exponential logarithm-of-the-odds (LOD) scores to identify chromosomal loci with a significant likelihood of linkage.
Forty-nine affected and 61 unaffected members of FNMTC families were genotyped. In pooled linkage analysis of all families, 2 distinct loci with significant linkage were detected at 6q22 and 1q21 (LOD=3.3 and 3.04, respectively).
We have identified 2 loci on chromosomes 1 and 6 that demonstrate linkage in a broad sampling of FNMTC families. Our findings suggest the presence of germline mutations in heretofore-undiscovered genes at these loci, which may potentially lead to accurate genetic tests. Future studies will consist of technical validation and subset analyses of higher-risk pedigrees.
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ABSTRACT: Approximately 5% of differentiated thyroid cancers are hereditary. Hereditary non-medullary thyroid cancer may occur as a minor component of familial cancer syndromes (e.g. familial adenomatous polyposis) or as a primary feature (familial non-medullary thyroid cancer [FNMTC]). Among FNMTC, PTC is the most common. Although a hereditary predisposition to non-medullary thyroid cancer is well established, the susceptibility genes are poorly known. Up to now, by linkage analysis using microsatellite markers, several putative loci have been described - 1q21, 6q22, 8p23.1-p22, and 8q24; however, validation studies have been unsuccessful. In the present review we discuss the results of linkage analysis and the most recent results of genome wide association studies (GWAS) with high resolution SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) arrays.Endokrynologia Polska 61(5):486-9. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Altered signal transduction can be considered a hallmark of many solid tumors. In thyroid cancers the receptor tyrosine kinase (rtk) genes NTRK1 (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man = OMIM *191315, also known as 'TRKA'), RET ('Rearranged during Transfection protooncogene', OMIM *164761) and MET (OMIM *164860) have been reported as activated, rearranged or overexpressed. In many cases, a combination of cytogenetic and molecular techniques allows elucidation of cellular changes that initiate tumor development and progression. While the mechanisms leading to overexpression of the rtk MET gene remain largely unknown, a variety of chromosomal rearrangements of the RET or NTKR1 gene could be demonstrated in thyroid cancer. Abnormal expressions in these tumors seem to follow a similar pattern: the rearrangement translocates the 3'- end of the rtk gene including the entire catalytic domain to an expressed gene leading to a chimeric RNA and protein with kinase activity. Our research was prompted by an increasing number of reports describing translocations involving ret and previously unknown translocation partners.We developed a high resolution technique based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to allow rapid screening for cytogenetic rearrangements which complements conventional chromosome banding analysis. Our technique applies simultaneous hybridization of numerous probes labeled with different reporter molecules which are distributed along the target chromosome allowing the detection of cytogenetic changes at near megabasepair (Mbp) resolution. Here, we report our results using a probe set specific for human chromosome 10, which is altered in a significant portion of human thyroid cancers (TC's). While rendering accurate information about the cytogenetic location of rearranged elements, our multi-locus, multi-color analysis was developed primarily to overcome limitations of whole chromosome painting (WCP) and chromosome banding techniques for fine mapping of breakpoints in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).The Open Cell Signaling Journal 01/2010; 2:13-22. DOI:10.2172/1011038
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ABSTRACT: The follicular cell-derived thyroid cancers (termed nonmedullary thyroid cancers-NMTCs) occur mostly sporadically, but intriguingly, NMTC has the highest familial risk among all cancer sites. This epidemiological observation is strengthened by the clinical occurrence of NMTC in familial aggregation (FNMTC) and by the detection of chromosomal loci in linkage with the disease phenotype. FNMTC loci have been proposed at 14q, 1q21, 19p13.2, 2q21, 8p23, 8q24, 1q21, and 6q22, but to date, no causative mutations have been linked to FNMTCs. In this review, the authors focus on the clinical, morphological, and molecular aspects that characterize familial tumors. Some morphological patterns may alert for a familial disease. FNMTCs share several of the somatic molecular changes associated with sporadic tumors. New genes affected by somatic changes have been disclosed within regions harboring FNMTC loci.International Journal of Surgical Pathology 05/2010; 18(4):233-42. DOI:10.1177/1066896910366442 · 0.96 Impact Factor