Effect of hepatic CYP inhibitors on the metabolism of sildenafil and formation of its metabolite, N-desmethylsildenafil, in rats in vitro and in vivo.
ABSTRACT It has been reported that hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C9 and CYP3A4 are responsible for the metabolism of sildenafil and formation of its metabolite, N-desmethylsildenafil, in humans. However, in-vivo studies in rats have not been reported.
Sildenafil (20 mg/kg) was administered intravenously to rats pretreated with sulfaphenazole, cimetidine, quinine hydrochloride or troleandomycin, inhibitors of CYP2C6, CYP2C11, CYP2D subfamily and CYP3A1/2, respectively. In-vitro studies using rat liver microsomes were also performed.
The area under the plasma-concentration time curve (AUC) was increased and clearance of sildenafil decreased in rats pretreated with cimetidine or troleandomycin. The AUC ratio for N-desmethylsildenafil (0-4 h) : sildenafil (0-infinity) was significantly decreased only in rats pretreated with cimetidine. Similar results were obtained in the in-vitro study using rat liver microsomes.
Sildenafil is metabolised via hepatic CYP2C11 and 3A1/2, and N-desmethylsildenafil is mainly formed via hepatic CYP2C11 in rats. Thus, rats could be a good model for pharmacokinetic studies of sildenafil and N-desmethylsildenafil in humans.
- SourceAvailable from: Abdulmecit Albayrak[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Sildenafil (SLD) is a selective and potent inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-specific phosphodiesterase PDE5. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of sildenafil on caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in rats. Four groups of rats were used, each composed of 10 rats: (i) 10 mg/kg SLD-treated CLP group; (ii) 20 mg/kg SLD-treated CLP group; (iii) CLP group; and (iv) sham-operated control group. A CLP polymicrobial sepsis model was applied to the rats. All groups were killed 16 h later, and lung, kidney and blood samples were analysed histopathologically and biochemically. Sildenafil increased glutathione (GSH) and decreased the activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and of lipid peroxidase (LPO) and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the septic rats. We observed a significant decrease in LPO and MPO and a decrease in SOD activity in the sildenafil-treated CLP rats compared with the sham group. In addition, 20 mg/kg sildenafil treatment in the sham-operated rats improved the biochemical status of lungs and kidneys. Histopathological analysis revealed significant differences in inflammation scores between the sepsis group and the other groups, except the CLP + sildenafil 10 mg/kg group. The CLP + sildenafil 20 mg/kg group had the lowest inflammation score. Sildenafil treatment decreased the serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α level when compared to the CLP group. Our results indicate that sildenafil is a highly protective agent in preventing lung and kidney damage caused by CLP-induced sepsis via maintenance of the oxidant-anti-oxidant status and decrease in the level of TNF-α.Clinical & Experimental Immunology 12/2011; 166(3):374-84. · 3.41 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A simple, robust, and rapid LC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitation of U0126 and validated in rat plasma. Plasma samples (20 μL) were deproteinized using 200 μL ACN containing 30 ng/mL of chlorpropamide, internal standard. Chromatographic separation performed on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C(18) column (4.6 × 50 mm, 2.7 μm particle size) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of a 70:30 v/v mixture of ACN and 0.1% aqueous formic acid. Each sample was run at 0.6 mL/min for a total run time of 2 min per sample. Detection and quantification were performed using a mass spectrometer in selected reaction-monitoring mode with positive ESI at m/z 381 → 123.9 for U0126 and m/z 277 → 175 for the internal standard. The standard curve was linear over a concentration range of 20-5000 ng/mL with correlation coefficients greater than 0.9965. Precision, both intra- and interday, was less than 10.1% with an accuracy of 90.7-99.4%. No matrix effects were observed. U0126 in rat plasma degraded approximately 41.3% after 3-h storage at room temperature. To prevent degradation, sample handling should be on an ice bath and all solutions kept at 4°C. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of U0126 at various doses in rats.Journal of Separation Science 12/2012; · 2.59 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A rapid, sensitive, simple and accurate LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitation of caffeine, and its three primary metabolites, theobromine, paraxanthine, and theophylline, in rat plasma was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column using 1μg/mL acetaminophen as an internal standard. Each sample was run at 0.5mL/min for a total run time of 7min/sample. Detection and quantification were performed using a mass spectrometer in selected reaction-monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization. The lower limit of quantification was 5ng/mL for all analytes with linear ranges up to 5000ng/mL for caffeine and 1000ng/mL for its metabolites. The coefficient of variation for assay precision was less than 12.6%, with an accuracy of 93.5-114%. The assay was successfully applied to determine plasma concentrations of caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine, and theophylline in rat administered various energy drinks containing the same caffeine content. Various energy drinks exhibited considerable variability in the pharmacokinetic profiles of caffeine and its three primary metabolites, even containing the same caffeine. Different additives of energy drinks might contribute to these results.Food Chemistry 12/2013; 141(3):2735-42. · 3.33 Impact Factor