Down-regulation of type I interferon receptor sensitizes bladder cancer cells to vesicular stomatitis virus-induced cell death.

The Vancouver Prostate Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 6.2). 12/2009; 127(4):830-8. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.25088
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The intrinsic oncolytic specificity of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is currently being exploited to develop alternative therapeutic strategies for bladder cancer and other cancers. Previously we reported that oncolytic VSV is a potent agent for intravesical treatment of high risk bladder cancer. We observed that VSV preferentially targeted bladder cancer cells resistant to type I interferon (IFN) treatment. The goal of the current study was to further elucidate the nature of the molecular defect of IFN signaling by which bladder cancer cells become susceptible to VSV infection. Using a tissue microarray composed of human bladder cancer cores, we observed that expression of type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) was decreased relative to normal bladder tissue. Advanced bladder cancers had even lower expression of IFNAR. We found that bladder cancer cells susceptible to VSV-induced lysis had low expression of IFNAR as well. We hypothesized that down-regulation of IFNAR in bladder cancer cells may be a molecular mechanism responsible for resistance to type I IFN treatment and sensitivity to VSV oncolysis. SiRNA knockdown of IFNAR indeed facilitated replication of VSV in cells previously resistant to VSV treatment. Blocking IFNAR with a neutralizing antibody showed a similar effect. Hence down-regulation of IFNAR in bladder cancer may be one of the primary molecular mechanisms for clinical IFN resistance. However, this also facilitates VSV replication and oncolysis in high risk bladder cancers and provides a basis for selecting bladder cancer patients for IFN or oncolytic VSV therapy in future clinical trials.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: M protein mutant vesicular stomatitis virus (M51R-VSV) has oncolytic properties against many cancers. However, some cancer cells are resistant to M51R-VSV. Herein, we evaluate the molecular determinants of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Cell viability and the effect of β-interferon (IFN) were analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay. Gene expression was evaluated via microarray analysis. Cell infectability was measured by flow cytometry. Xenografts were established in athymic nude mice and treated with intratumoral M51R-VSV. Four of five pancreatic cancer cell lines were sensitive to M51R-VSV, whereas Panc 03.27 cells remained resistant (81 ± 3% viability 72 h after single-cycle infection). Comparing sensitive MiaPaCa2 cells with resistant Panc 03.27 cells, significant differences in gene expression were found relating to IFN signaling (P = 2 × 10(-5)), viral entry (P = 3 × 10(-4)), and endocytosis (P = 7 × 10(-4)). MiaPaCa2 cells permitted high levels of VSV infection, whereas Panc 03.27 cells were capable of resisting VSV cell entry even at high multiplicities of infection. Extrinsic β-IFN overcame apparent defects in IFN-mediated pathways in MiaPaCa2 cells conferring VSV resistance. In contrast, β-IFN decreased cell viability in Panc 3.27 cells, suggesting intact antiviral mechanisms. VSV-treated xenografts exhibited reduced tumor growth relative to controls in both MiaPaCa2 (1423 ± 345% versus 164 ± 136%; P < 0.001) and Panc 3.27 (979 ± 153% versus 50 ± 56%; P = 0.002) tumors. Significant lymphocytic infiltration was seen in M51R-VSV-treated Panc 03.27 xenografts. Inhibition of VSV endocytosis and intact IFN-mediated defenses are responsible for M51R-VSV resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. M51R-VSV treatment appears to induce antitumor cellular immunity in vivo, which may expand its clinical efficacy.
    Journal of Surgical Research 10/2013; 187(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.10.032 · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As cancer treatment tools, oncolytic viruses (OV) have yet to realize what some see as their ultimate clinical potential. In this study, we have engineered a chimeric vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) that is devoid of its natural neurotoxicity while retaining potent oncolytic activity. The envelope glycoprotein (G) of VSV was replaced with a variant glycoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV-GP) creating a replicating therapeutic, rVSV(GP), that is benign in normal brain but can effectively eliminate brain cancer in multiple pre-clinical tumour models in vivo. Furthermore, it can be safely administered systemically to mice and displays greater potency against a spectrum of human cancer cell lines than current OV candidates. Remarkably, rVSV(GP) escapes humoral immunity, thus, for the first time, allowing repeated systemic OV application without loss of therapeutic efficacy. Taken together, rVSV(GP) offers a considerably improved OV platform which lacks several of the major drawbacks that have limited the clinical potential of this technology to date.
    Cancer Research 05/2014; 74(13). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-3306 · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a major driving force of microsatellite stable (MSS) sporadic CRC. CIN tumours are characterised by a large number of somatic chromosomal copy number aberrations (SCNA) that frequently affect oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. The main aim of this work was to identify novel candidate CRC driver genes affected by recurrent and focal SCNA. High resolution genome-wide comparative genome hybridisation (CGH) arrays were used to compare tumour and normal DNA for 53 sporadic CRC cases. Context corrected common aberration (COCA) analysis and custom algorithms identified 64 deletions and 32 gains of focal minimal common regions (FMCR) at high frequency (>10%). Comparison of these FMCR with published genomic profiles from CRC revealed common overlap (42.2% of deletions and 34.4% of copy gains). Pathway analysis showed that apoptosis and p53 signalling pathways were commonly affected by deleted FMCR, and MAPK and potassium channel pathways by gains of FMCR. Candidate tumour suppressor genes in deleted FMCR included RASSF3, IFNAR1, IFNAR2 and NFKBIA and candidate oncogenes in gained FMCR included PRDM16, TNS1, RPA3 and KCNMA1. In conclusion, this study confirms some previously identified aberrations in MSS CRC and provides in silico evidence for some novel candidate driver genes.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e83859. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083859 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Sep 1, 2014