Plasma and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in septic versus non-septic acute kidney injury in critical illness
ABSTRACT Sepsis is the most common trigger for acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. We sought to determine whether there are unique patterns to plasma and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in septic compared with non-septic AKI.
Prospective observational study.
Two adult ICUs in Melbourne, Australia.
Critically ill patients with septic and non-septic AKI.
Blood and urine specimens collected at enrollment, 12, 24 and 48 h to measure plasma and urine NGAL. Eighty-three patients were enrolled (septic n = 43). Septic AKI patients had more co-morbid disease (p = 0.005), emergency surgical admissions (p < 0.001), higher illness severity (p = 0.008), more organ dysfunction (p = 0.008) and higher white blood cell counts (p = 0.01). There were no differences at enrollment between groups in AKI severity. Septic AKI was associated with significantly higher plasma (293 vs. 166 ng/ml) and urine (204 vs. 39 ng/mg creatinine) NGAL at enrollment compared with non-septic AKI (p < 0.001). Urine NGAL remained higher in septic compared with non-septic AKI at 12 h (p < 0.001) and 24 h (p < 0.001). Plasma NGAL showed fair discrimination for AKI progression (area under receiver-operator characteristic curve 0.71) and renal replacement therapy (AuROC 0.78). Although urine NGAL performed less well (AuROC 0.70, 0.70), peak urine NGAL predicted AKI progression better in non-septic AKI (AuROC 0.82).
Septic AKI patients have higher detectable plasma and urine NGAL compared with non-septic AKI patients. These differences in NGAL values in septic AKI may have diagnostic and clinical relevance as well as pathogenetic implications.
- SourceAvailable from: Marta Riera
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- "and probably the most promising of them because of the results obtained in different scenarios and clinical conditions     . "
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine if complement pathway is activated in AKI; for this purpose, we measured, through ELISA sandwich, the terminal lytic fraction of the complement system, called membrane attack complex (C5b-C9), in AKI patients compared with patients with similar clinical conditions but normal renal function. Our data showed that complement system is activated in AKI. Plasmatic MAC concentrations were significantly higher in AKI patients than in those with normal renal function; this difference is maintained independently of the AKI etiology and is proportional to the severity of AKI, measured by ADQI classification. In addition, we found that plasmatic MAC concentrations were significantly higher in patients who did not recover renal function at time of hospitalization discharge, in patients who died during the acute process, and in patients who need renal replacement therapy during hospitalization, but in this last group, the differences did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, plasmatic MAC concentration seems valuable as a marker of AKI severity.BioMed Research International 05/2014; 2014:361065. DOI:10.1155/2014/361065 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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- "Observations found that the levels of plasma NGAL and urinary NGAL (uNGAL) were significantly higher in patients with sepsis. Furthermore, plasma NGAL levels increased within 12 h in patients diagnosed with AKI and sepsis, as compared with those who were diagnosed with AKI in the absence of sepsis . Consequently, NGAL is an increasing concern in the early diagnosis of AKI  . "
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin (PCT) in the prognosis of patients presenting with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with nephrolithiasis. Urine NGAL protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 87 patients presenting with nephrolithiasis who were diagnosed as SIRS. Additionally, 52 patients presenting with nephrolithiasis but without urinary tract infection and 30 healthy controls were also included in the study. Levels of serum CRP and PCT were also taken into consideration. Median urinary NGAL levels were significantly increased in the SIRS cohorts compared with nephrolithiasis without urinary tract infection patients (4.28 ng/mL versus 2.69 ng/mL, P < 0.001), and NGAL was markedly elevated even in the early stage of SIRS (3.23 ng/mL versus 2.69 ng/mL, P < 0.001). According to the receiver-operating characteristic analysis, NGAL demonstrated a high diagnostic value compared with either PCT or CRP. In the later stage of SIRS, NGAL remained a highly sensitive (76.8%) and specific (86.5%) diagnostic marker compared with either PCT or CRP. Moreover, the area under the curves of NGAL (0.822) were also superior to those seen in either PCT (0.657) or CRP (0.761). Urinary NGAL is a highly sensitive and specific predictor of SIRS for patients presenting with nephrolithiasis. Further study of NGAL as a reliable biomarker of SIRS is required.Journal of Surgical Research 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.09.036 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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- "The limited power available from the small sample of non-septic AKI patients must, however, be acknowledged. In contrast, Bagshaw et al. (2010) found almost 80% higher plasma NGAL in septic than in non-septic AKI patients. In addition, Kumpers et al. (2010) found twice as high values of serum NGAL in septic compared to nonseptic patients at inception of RRT. "
ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is secreted by injured kidney cells as well as by activated neutrophils in response to bacterial infections. We assessed the influence of acute renal dysfunction on the association between plasma NGAL and sepsis. Methods: NGAL was measured daily in 138 critically ill patients. Simultaneous recordings of sepsis status and fluctuations in renal function were made. Results: Elevated NGAL was associated with sepsis independent of level of acute renal dysfunction. A cut-off value of 98 ng/mL distinguished sepsis from systemic inflammation with high sensitivity (0.77) and specificity (0.79). Conclusions: Plasma NGAL can help clinicians to identify bacterial infections in critically ill patients.Biomarkers 04/2013; DOI:10.3109/1354750X.2013.787460 · 2.52 Impact Factor