Antiobesity mechanisms of action of conjugated linoleic acid.

Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina Greensboro, PO Box 26170, Greensboro, NC 27402-6170, USA.
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry (Impact Factor: 4.29). 11/2009; 21(3):171-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.08.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a family of fatty acids found in beef, dairy foods and dietary supplements, reduces adiposity in several animal models of obesity and some human studies. However, the isomer-specific antiobesity mechanisms of action of CLA are unclear, and its use in humans is controversial. This review will summarize in vivo and in vitro findings from the literature regarding potential mechanisms by which CLA reduces adiposity, including its impact on (a) energy metabolism, (b) adipogenesis, (c) inflammation, (d) lipid metabolism and (e) apoptosis.

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    ABSTRACT: RESUMEN and ABSTRACT Por múltiples razones los productos cárnicos son alimentos excepcionalmente adecuados para introducir en la dieta diversos compuestos bioactivos sin modificar los hábitos de consumo. En los últimos años se ha producido un notable desarrollo de productos cárnicos diseñados como potencialmente funcionales. En el marco de la alimentación funcional, este artículo proporciona una panorámica general acerca de las razones que impulsan y justifican su obtención haciendo especial énfasis en: a) los aspectos a considerar en su diseño con el propósito de poder realizar declaraciones nutricionales y alegaciones de propiedades saludables; b) las estrategias empleadas para optimizar la presencia de ingredientes funcionales, favoreciendo la presencia de compuestos bioactivos beneficiosos y limitando la de aquellos otros con implicaciones negativas para la salud, y c) los procedimientos para demostrar una relación entre la ingesta de productos cárnicos potencialmente funcionales con un efecto beneficioso sobre la salud y de qué manera se reflejan tales estudios en la bibliografía. Abstract For a number of reasons, meat products are an exceptionally adequate means for introducing different bioactive compounds into the diet without modifying eating habits. In recent years, there has been a notable development of meat products designed as potentially functional foods. Within the framework of the functional food, this article provides a general view of the reasons that motivate and justify their formulation, with special emphasis on: a) aspects to be considered in their design in order to be able to make nutrition claims and statements concerning their health-promoting properties; b) the strategies employed to optimize the presence of functional ingredients, favoring the presence of beneficial bioactive compounds and limiting others with negative consequences for our health, and c) the procedures for demonstrating a relationship between the consumption of potentially functional meat products with beneficial effects on health and the way in which these studies are reflected in the literature.
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and phytosterol supplementation and their combination added to high fat diet to verify their action on the satiety hormones, food intake, weight loss and peripheral glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in healthy rats. Twenty-one-day-old male healthy Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n=5): Standard group (P), Standard High-Fat group (HF), and three high-fat groups fed diets with 2% CLA added (HC), 2% phytosterol (HP) and 2% CLA plus 2% phytosterol (HS). The standard diet was AIN-93G with 12% protein and 4% vegetable oil; the high-fat diet contained 12% protein and 35% fat (4% vegetable oil and 31% animal fat). The experimental period lasted 8 weeks. The groups receiving supplements showed a significant reduction of retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissue as compared to the HF group (p<0.05). However, there was no improvement in insulin resistance and glucose in either supplemented group (p<0.05). The leptin decreased only in the groups that were receiving CLA (p<0.05). All supplemented groups showed a reduction in diet consumption, but the groups that received the supplements showed weight reduction compared to the HF group (p<0.05). The animals that received the supplements alone or in combination showed reduced fat mass and the effect was potentiated in the group HS, but there was no improvement in ghrelin, adiponectin insulin and glucose resistance. The supplements alone or in combination promoted reduction of food intake and also promoted weight loss in experimental animals.
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid-soluble molecules share several aspects of their physiology due to their common adaptations to a hydrophilic environment, and may interact to regulate their action in a tissue-specific manner. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid with a conjugated diene structure that is found in low concentrations in ruminant products and available as a nutritional supplement. CLA has been shown to increase tissue levels of retinol (vitamin A alcohol) and its sole specific circulating carrier protein retinol-binding protein (RBP or RBP4). However, the precise mechanism of this action has not been elucidated yet. Here, we provide a summary of the current knowledge in this specific area of research and speculate that retinol and CLA may compete for catabolic pathways modulated by the activity of PPAR-α and RXR heterodimer. We also present preliminary data that may position PPAR-α at the crossroads between the metabolism of lipids and vitamin A.
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May 31, 2014

Arion Kennedy