Conference Paper

Implementation of three-dimensional FPGA-based FDTD solvers: an architectural overview

EM Photonics, Inc.
DOI: 10.1109/FPGA.2003.1227265 Conference: Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines, 2003. FCCM 2003. 11th Annual IEEE Symposium on
Source: DBLP

ABSTRACT Maxwell's equations, which govern electromagnetic propagation, are a system of coupled, differential equations. As such, they can be represented in difference form, thus allowing their numerical solution. By implementing both the temporal and spatial derivatives of Maxwell's equations in difference form, we arrive at one of the most common computational electromagnetic algorithms, the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method (Yee, 1966). In this technique, the region of interest is sampled to generate a grid of points, hereafter referred to as a mesh. The discretized form of Maxwell's equations is then solved at each point in the mesh to determine the associated electromagnetic fields. In this extended abstract, we present an architecture that overcomes the previous limitations. We begin with a high-level description of the computational flow of this architecture.

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    ABSTRACT: Modeling, simulation and optimization using com- puting tools are the core approach nowadays in science com- plementary to experiment and theory. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has evolved many years ago to simulate fluid physics by solving Navier-Stokes equations, or its simple variants, Euler equations. However, most problems spend many hours to get solutions even with expensive supercomputers or clusters. The long computation time required for fluid dynamics simulations has lead the industry to look for some alternatives. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are becoming more and more attractive for high precision scientific computations. FPGA holds the potential to alleviate this situations. It is possible for an FPGA to configure hundreds of multipliers working concurrently. In this paper, the authors explain the design on implementing the one-dimensional Euler equations in hardware. Two designs with single and double floating-point arithmetic are developed in an FPGA. Synthesis results show that a single floating-point arithmetic design is consumed less area and memory usage, also operating at higher frequency. However, double-precision design is crucial for give a better accuracy of the result. I. INTRODUCTION
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the utilization of field pro-grammable gate arrays (FPGAs) in the acceleration of numer-ically intensive electromagnetics applications. We investigate the speed improvement by employing FPGAs for two different applications: (i) the optimization of a phased array antenna pattern by amplitude control using the ant colony optimiza-tion algorithm, (ii) implementation of the rigorous coupled wave (RCW) analysis technique for the design of engineered materials. The first application utilizes FPGAs as the only processor; i.e., all functionalities of the algorithm reside on the FPGA. The second one employs a hybrid hardware/software approach where the FPGA serves as a coprocessor to the CPU. The hybrid approach identifies the most numerically intensive part of the RCW algorithm and implements it on the FPGA. In both applications we demonstrate orders of magnitude of improvement in speed proving that FPGAs are highly flexible platforms suited well for the challenging electromagnetics problems. An overview of available FPGA platforms for scientific computing and how they compare are also presented in the paper.

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Jun 3, 2014