Microfluidic chips for the molecular analysis of human cancer
ABSTRACT Although the large-scale analysis of the human genome has provided a wealth of information for the genetic analysis of cancer and other diseases, most of these advances are unavailable in the clinic due to their expense and complexity. The development of miniaturized devices capable of automated real time analysis of genetic profiles is likely to enable routine genetic analysis of diseases such as cancer, whether for diagnosis or for monitoring treatment throughout the course of the disease. Microfluidic chips allow detection of mutations and abnormal gene expression patterns. Here, we describe the application of microfluidic chips for the molecular monitoring of gene expression profiles associated with human cancer. On-chip RT-PCR products are detectable after as few as 15 cycles of PCR, and from individual cells. On-chip detection is as sensitive as or exceeds the sensitivity obtained using conventional technologies.
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ABSTRACT: A switching controller is designed and implemented in a custom-made temperature control system to perform sensitive bio-chemical reactions for medical diagnostics within a microfluidic platform. Nonlinear and time-varying characteristics of the plant are considered, and the system is approximated by multi-linear models. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the switching controller exhibits superior performance compared with other controllers considered. The efficacy of this design is exhibited by the application to a clinically important diagnostic test - polymerase chain reaction (PCR)American Control Conference, 2006; 07/2006
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ABSTRACT: On-chip genetic analysis systems are beginning to provide a viable alternative to conventional gene profiling and amplification devices, through minimal reagent use, high detection resolution, and the potential for high-throughput parallel testing of the genetic material, even from single cells. Despite the advantages, there are many difficulties inherent in creating an integrated microfluidic diagnostic platform. One major challenge is the accurate control and manipulation of fluid, and particularly the immobilization of reaction mixtures during heating phases of polymerase chain reactions (PCR). In this paper we present a pumping and valving system based on the use of three servomotor-controlled valve fingers that actuate microchannels within a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fluidic chip. We characterize the valving ability of the system in terms of fluid loss and show the successful fluid retention of the system over 35-cycle PCR runs at temperatures of up to approximately 96 degrees C. In addition, we demonstrate the system's ability to perform PCR by successfully amplifying a sample of beta2 microglobulin transcript obtained from the peripheral blood of a patient with multiple myeloma. This work has proven to be a successful approach to multi-use valving and a viable method of alleviating the fluid control difficulties inherent in performing a PCR reaction in an on-chip environment. In addition, it opens the door for further automation and integration with other chip-based genetic analysis platforms.Journal of Immunological Methods 11/2005; 305(1):48-58. · 2.23 Impact Factor