Radiation test methodology for SRAM-based FPGAs by using THESIC+
ABSTRACT Benefits resulting from the adoption of SRAM-based FPGAs as design target technology in space applications are manifold. These devices, however, exhibit a potentially high susceptibility to single event upsets (SEU) due to the presence of a large number of configuration memory cells. As fault injection alone is not able to reach every circuitry inside FPGA, radiation ground testing is mandatory in order to perform the analysis on a larger set of SEU upsets. This paper presents a radiation test methodology for Xilinx Virtex FPGAs based on the THESIC+ system.
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ABSTRACT: The very high integration levels reached by VLSI technologies for SRAM-based field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) lead to high occurrence-rate of transient faults induced by single event upsets (SEUs) in FPGAs' configuration memory. Since the configuration memory defines which circuit an SRAM-based FPGA implements, any modification induced by SEUs may dramatically change the implemented circuit. When such devices are used in safety-critical applications, fault-tolerant techniques are needed to mitigate the effects of SEUs in FPGAs' configuration memory. In this paper, we analyze the effects induced by the SEUs in the configuration memory of SRAM-based FPGAs. The reported analysis outlines that SEUs in the FPGA's configuration memory are particularly critical since they are able to escape well-known fault masking techniques such as triple modular redundancy (TMR). We then present a reliability-oriented place and route algorithm that, coupled with TMR, is able to effectively mitigate the effects of the considered faults. The effectiveness of the new reliability-oriented place and route algorithm is demonstrated by extensive fault injection experiments showing that the capability of tolerating SEU effects in the FPGA's configuration memory increases up to 85 times with respect to a standard TMR design technique.IEEE Transactions on Computers 07/2006; 55(6):732- 744. · 1.38 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Application-oriented SEU sensitiveness analysis of Atmel rad-hard FPGAs[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Radiation-hardened-by-design (RHBD) SRAM-based FPGAs will play a crucial role in providing new generations of satellites with reliable in-flight reconfiguration ability, which is mandatory to enable the successful use of configurable computing in space. RHBD SRAM-based FPGAs sensitiveness against ionizing radiation is normally evaluated resorting to radiation testing, which provides the device cross-section. However, as a matter of fact, applications implemented on such devices use only a portion of the available resources, and the corresponding configuration memory. As a result, application-oriented sensitiveness analysis tools are needed that, by analyzing how the FPGA resources are actually used by a given application, produce application cross-section that is a reliability figure more accurate than device cross section. This paper presents a novel application-oriented sensitiveness analysis tool we are developing for the new generation of SRAM-based FPGAs from Atmel: the ATF280E.On-Line Testing Symposium, 2009. IOLTS 2009. 15th IEEE International; 07/2009
Conference Paper: SEU induced dynamic current variation of SRAM-based FPGA: A case study[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The dynamic current variation property of XC2V1000, a kind of SRAM-based Field Programmable Gate Arrays(FPGA), is presented by heavy ion irradiation. The relationship between dynamic current and the quantity of SEUs (Single Event Upsets) in configuration memory of FPGA is derived from the experimental data, and probable causation of the phenomenon is analyzed with the help of irradiation and fault injection experiment. The current increases gradually in several discrete steps and is probably due to routing resources confliction resulting from SEUs of configuration memory. In general, current increases when more SEUs occur, but it may also drops in some cases. And such increase will return to normal value when the FPGA is reconfigured.Radiation and Its Effects on Components and Systems (RADECS), 2011 12th European Conference on; 01/2011