Attraction of Colorado Potato Beetle to Herbivore-Damaged Plants During Herbivory and After Its Termination

Agriculture and Agri-food Canada
Journal of Chemical Ecology (Impact Factor: 2.75). 04/1997; 23:1003-1023. DOI: 10.1023/B:JOEC.0000006385.70652.5e
Source: OAI


Large, undamaged potato plants (> 60 cm, 5-6 weeks old) attract the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), but small potato plants (15-25 cm high, 2-3 weeks old) do not. However, small plants become attractive to CPB when they are damaged. Mechanical damage inflicted with scissors results in short-term (lasting less than 15 min) attraction, while more severe damage with carborundum powder results in a longer lasting attraction (at least 1 hr), CPB adults are also attracted to small plants infested with CPB and Spodoptera exigua larvae. After the larvae had been removed for 50 min following a short duration (30 min) of feeding, CPB adults were no longer attracted to the plants. However, when CPB larvae had been removed after they had fed for 60-90 min, the plants were somewhat attractive to the beetles, although significantly less than they had been when the larvae were feeding. Attraction increased with time after feeding ceased. Furthermore, beetles were strongly attracted to plants 50 min after larvae were removed when the plants had been fed upon by larvae for 18-24 hr. Thus it appears that there are two stages of attraction, first, to volatiles released directly from the wound site, and second, to volatiles that are induced in response to herbivory. Chemical analyses of the headspace of infested potato plants show that infestation results in the emission of a mixture of chemicals that is qualitatively quite similar to that emitted by undamaged plants. The major components of the mixture are that emitted by undamaged plants. The major components of the mixture are terpenoids and fatty acid derivatives such as aldehydes and alcohols. The emission rate of some of these chemicals declines after removal of the beetles, while the emission rate of other chemical:, increases with the duration of beetle feeding and remains at a high level even after removal of the beetles. Thus, the composition of the mixture changes temporally during and after herbivore feeding, which may explain the recorded behavior of the beetles.

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Available from: Marcel Dicke, Oct 07, 2015
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    • "The emission of HIPVs is considered to serve as an indirect defence mechanism because HIPVs can attract natural enemies of herbivores (Vet & Dicke, 1992; Dicke & Baldwin, 2010). However , herbivores and plants can also exploit HIPVs: herbivores may avoid oviposition on plants that already contain eggs or feeding herbivores (Dicke, 2000), while specialist herbivores may be attracted by HIPVs (Bolter et al., 1997) and plants grown near damaged neighbours may become more resistant to herbivory, as was shown for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) grown near damaged sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) (Karban et al., 2003). JA-deficient mutants display a reduced induction of many volatiles upon herbivore attack, especially terpenoids and GLVs (Thaler et al., 2002; Snoeren et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of plant competition for light on the emission of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were studied by investigating how different light qualities that occur in dense vegetation affect the emission of constitutive and methyl-jasmonate-induced VOCs. Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia (Col-0) plants and Pieris brassicae caterpillars were used as a biological system to study the effects of light quality manipulations on VOC emissions and attraction of herbivores. VOCs were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and the effects of light quality, notably the red : far red light ratio (R : FR), on expression of genes associated with VOC production were studied using reverse transcriptase–quantitative PCR. The emissions of both constitutive and methyl-jasmonate-induced green leaf volatiles and terpenoids were partially suppressed under low R : FR and severe shading conditions. Accordingly, the VOC-based preference of neonates of the specialist lepidopteran herbivore P. brassicae was significantly affected by the R : FR ratio. We conclude that VOC-mediated interactions among plants and between plants and organisms at higher trophic levels probably depend on light alterations caused by nearby vegetation. Studies on plant–plant and plant–insect interactions through VOCs should take into account the light quality within dense stands when extrapolating to natural and agricultural field conditions.
    New Phytologist 07/2013; 200:861–874. DOI:10.1111/nph.12407 · 7.67 Impact Factor
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    • "Similarly, neonate larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, are more attracted to apple fruits with other codling moth larvae than to uninfested fruits (Landolt et al., 2000). This is somewhat surprising, as these Lepidoptera are not known to aggregate, unlike many Coleoptera, for which both adults and larvae are often attracted to the volatiles of already infested plants (Crowe, 1995; Bolter et al., 1997; Müller and Hilker, 2000; Kalberer et al., 2001; Heil, 2004; Yoneya et al., 2010). It should be noted that in the case of S. frugiperda, Carroll et al. (2008) found linalool to be particularly attractive. "
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    ABSTRACT: Plants under herbivore attack emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can serve as foraging cues for natural enemies. Adult females of Lepidoptera, when foraging for host plants to deposit eggs, are commonly repelled by herbivore-induced VOCs, probably to avoid competition and natural enemies. Their larval stages, on the other hand, have been shown to be attracted to inducible VOCs. We speculate that this contradicting behavior of lepidopteran larvae is due to a need to quickly find a new suitable host plant if they have fallen to the ground. However, once they are on a plant they might avoid the sites with fresh damage to limit competition and risk of cannibalism by conspecifics, as well as exposure to natural enemies. To test this we studied the effect of herbivore-induced VOCs on the attraction of larvae of the moth Spodoptera littoralis and on their feeding behavior. The experiments further considered the importance of previous feeding experience on the responses of the larvae. It was confirmed that herbivore-induced VOCs emitted by maize plants are attractive to the larvae, but exposure to the volatiles decreased the growth rate of caterpillars at early developmental stages. Larvae that had fed on maize previously were more attracted by VOCs of induced maize than larvae that had fed on artificial diet. At relatively high concentrations synthetic green leaf volatiles, indicative of fresh damage, also negatively affected the growth rate of caterpillars, but not at low concentrations. In all cases, feeding by the later stages of the larvae was not affected by the VOCs. The results are discussed in the context of larval foraging behavior under natural conditions, where there may be a trade-off between using available host plant signals and avoiding competitors and natural enemies.
    Frontiers in Plant Science 06/2013; 4:209. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2013.00209 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    • "Studies on the function of induced plant volatiles (VOCs) for host plant location of chrysomelid herbivores have yielded inconsistent results. Induced VOCs have been demonstrated to attract chrysomelid herbivores to their host plants [73], [74], while other studies have reported repellent effects [6], [38], [45]. Our present study suggests that the function of VOCs for locating and exploiting host plants is more complex than widely assumed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores? WE DETERMINED THE CHOICE BEHAVIOR OF HERBIVOROUS BEETLES (CHRYSOMELIDAE: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis) when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus) with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials. Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores, whereas the presence of a slightly damaged plant can help males to localize putative mating partners.
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