Attraction of Colorado Potato Beetle to Herbivore-Damaged Plants During Herbivory and After Its Termination

Agriculture and Agri-food Canada
Journal of Chemical Ecology (Impact Factor: 2.75). 04/1997; 23:1003-1023. DOI: 10.1023/B:JOEC.0000006385.70652.5e
Source: OAI


Large, undamaged potato plants (> 60 cm, 5-6 weeks old) attract the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), but small potato plants (15-25 cm high, 2-3 weeks old) do not. However, small plants become attractive to CPB when they are damaged. Mechanical damage inflicted with scissors results in short-term (lasting less than 15 min) attraction, while more severe damage with carborundum powder results in a longer lasting attraction (at least 1 hr), CPB adults are also attracted to small plants infested with CPB and Spodoptera exigua larvae. After the larvae had been removed for 50 min following a short duration (30 min) of feeding, CPB adults were no longer attracted to the plants. However, when CPB larvae had been removed after they had fed for 60-90 min, the plants were somewhat attractive to the beetles, although significantly less than they had been when the larvae were feeding. Attraction increased with time after feeding ceased. Furthermore, beetles were strongly attracted to plants 50 min after larvae were removed when the plants had been fed upon by larvae for 18-24 hr. Thus it appears that there are two stages of attraction, first, to volatiles released directly from the wound site, and second, to volatiles that are induced in response to herbivory. Chemical analyses of the headspace of infested potato plants show that infestation results in the emission of a mixture of chemicals that is qualitatively quite similar to that emitted by undamaged plants. The major components of the mixture are that emitted by undamaged plants. The major components of the mixture are terpenoids and fatty acid derivatives such as aldehydes and alcohols. The emission rate of some of these chemicals declines after removal of the beetles, while the emission rate of other chemical:, increases with the duration of beetle feeding and remains at a high level even after removal of the beetles. Thus, the composition of the mixture changes temporally during and after herbivore feeding, which may explain the recorded behavior of the beetles.

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    • "Whether this resistance could be complemented by additional anti-xenotic volatile-mediated effects has not been addressed previously. Previous studies have confirmed that HIPVs act as repellents of arthropod pests (Dicke, 1986; Bernasconi et al., 1998), whereas other studies have demonstrated the opposite effects (Bolter et al., 1997; Pallini et al., 1997; Halitschke et al., 2008). Interestingly, we observed that both effects occur in closely related species. "
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    ABSTRACT: The citrus rootstocks sour orange and Cleopatra mandarin display differential resistance against Tetranychus urticae. Sour orange plants support reduced oviposition, growth rates and damage compared with Cleopatra mandarin plants. Jasmonic acid signalling and flavonoid accumulation have been revealed as key mechanisms for the enhanced resistance of sour orange plants. In this study, we observed that the release of T. urticae herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) from sour orange plants has a marked repellent effect on conspecific mites associated with the production of the terpenes α-ocimene, α-farnesene, pinene and d-limonene, and the green leaf volatile 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone. By contrast, T. urticae HIPVs from Cleopatra mandarin plants promote conspecific mite attraction associated with an increase in (2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol, benzaldehyde and methyl salicylate levels. HIPVs released from sour orange plants following T. urticae infestation induce resistance in Cleopatra mandarin plants, thereby reducing oviposition rates and stimulating the oxylipin biosynthetic gene lipoxygenase2 (LOX2). Cleopatra HIPVs do not affect the response to T. urticae of these rootstocks. We conclude that sour orange plants promote herbivore-induced resistance in Cleopatra mandarin plants and, despite the weak basal resistance of these rootstocks, herbivore resistance can be induced through the combination of HIPVs, such as α-ocimene and d-limonene. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.
    New Phytologist 03/2015; 207(3). DOI:10.1111/nph.13357 · 7.67 Impact Factor
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    • "The emission of HIPVs is considered to serve as an indirect defence mechanism because HIPVs can attract natural enemies of herbivores (Vet & Dicke, 1992; Dicke & Baldwin, 2010). However , herbivores and plants can also exploit HIPVs: herbivores may avoid oviposition on plants that already contain eggs or feeding herbivores (Dicke, 2000), while specialist herbivores may be attracted by HIPVs (Bolter et al., 1997) and plants grown near damaged neighbours may become more resistant to herbivory, as was shown for tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) grown near damaged sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) (Karban et al., 2003). JA-deficient mutants display a reduced induction of many volatiles upon herbivore attack, especially terpenoids and GLVs (Thaler et al., 2002; Snoeren et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of plant competition for light on the emission of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were studied by investigating how different light qualities that occur in dense vegetation affect the emission of constitutive and methyl-jasmonate-induced VOCs. Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia (Col-0) plants and Pieris brassicae caterpillars were used as a biological system to study the effects of light quality manipulations on VOC emissions and attraction of herbivores. VOCs were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and the effects of light quality, notably the red : far red light ratio (R : FR), on expression of genes associated with VOC production were studied using reverse transcriptase–quantitative PCR. The emissions of both constitutive and methyl-jasmonate-induced green leaf volatiles and terpenoids were partially suppressed under low R : FR and severe shading conditions. Accordingly, the VOC-based preference of neonates of the specialist lepidopteran herbivore P. brassicae was significantly affected by the R : FR ratio. We conclude that VOC-mediated interactions among plants and between plants and organisms at higher trophic levels probably depend on light alterations caused by nearby vegetation. Studies on plant–plant and plant–insect interactions through VOCs should take into account the light quality within dense stands when extrapolating to natural and agricultural field conditions.
    New Phytologist 07/2013; 200:861–874. DOI:10.1111/nph.12407 · 7.67 Impact Factor
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    • "Similarly, neonate larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, are more attracted to apple fruits with other codling moth larvae than to uninfested fruits (Landolt et al., 2000). This is somewhat surprising, as these Lepidoptera are not known to aggregate, unlike many Coleoptera, for which both adults and larvae are often attracted to the volatiles of already infested plants (Crowe, 1995; Bolter et al., 1997; Müller and Hilker, 2000; Kalberer et al., 2001; Heil, 2004; Yoneya et al., 2010). It should be noted that in the case of S. frugiperda, Carroll et al. (2008) found linalool to be particularly attractive. "
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    ABSTRACT: Plants under herbivore attack emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can serve as foraging cues for natural enemies. Adult females of Lepidoptera, when foraging for host plants to deposit eggs, are commonly repelled by herbivore-induced VOCs, probably to avoid competition and natural enemies. Their larval stages, on the other hand, have been shown to be attracted to inducible VOCs. We speculate that this contradicting behavior of lepidopteran larvae is due to a need to quickly find a new suitable host plant if they have fallen to the ground. However, once they are on a plant they might avoid the sites with fresh damage to limit competition and risk of cannibalism by conspecifics, as well as exposure to natural enemies. To test this we studied the effect of herbivore-induced VOCs on the attraction of larvae of the moth Spodoptera littoralis and on their feeding behavior. The experiments further considered the importance of previous feeding experience on the responses of the larvae. It was confirmed that herbivore-induced VOCs emitted by maize plants are attractive to the larvae, but exposure to the volatiles decreased the growth rate of caterpillars at early developmental stages. Larvae that had fed on maize previously were more attracted by VOCs of induced maize than larvae that had fed on artificial diet. At relatively high concentrations synthetic green leaf volatiles, indicative of fresh damage, also negatively affected the growth rate of caterpillars, but not at low concentrations. In all cases, feeding by the later stages of the larvae was not affected by the VOCs. The results are discussed in the context of larval foraging behavior under natural conditions, where there may be a trade-off between using available host plant signals and avoiding competitors and natural enemies.
    Frontiers in Plant Science 06/2013; 4:209. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2013.00209 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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