"MycoSep Õ columns) for the purification of mycotoxins , in particular trichothecenes, in aqueous acetonitrile extracts. The purification is achieved because co-extracted matrix constituents are adsorbed while the mycotoxin remains in solution (Krska 1998; Silva and Vargas 2001; Schothorst et al. 2005; Valle-Algarra et al. 2005; Tanaka et al. 2006; Ren et al. 2007; Stecher et al. 2007; Lattanzio et al. 2008). Therefore, such substances should have no or an insignificant effect on the binding of mycotoxins from extracts with a high content of an organic solvent. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, the use of substances that can suppress or reduce absorption, promote the excretion of mycotoxins or modify their mode of action in feed, so-called mycotoxin binders, has been officially allowed in the European Union as technological feed additives. The influence of the addition of mycotoxin binders to animal feed on the analytical performance of the official methods for the determination of mycotoxins was studied and the results are presented. Where possible standardised methods for analysis were applied. Samples of 20 commercial mycotoxin binders were collected from various companies. The following mycotoxins were included in the study: aflatoxin B(1), deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B(1) and B(2), T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A binder (or binders combined in a group) was mixed with feed material containing the mycotoxin, and the feed material was analysed. For data evaluation, the mean values were compared by Student's t-test (an independent two-sample t-test with unequal sample sizes and equal variance). The repeatability standard deviation of each method was used as an estimate of method variability. No significant differences (p = 0.05) in mycotoxin levels between binder-free material and the material containing different binders were found. Further, the possible effects of binder addition in combination with processing (pelletising) on the amount of aflatoxin B(1) determined in feed were studied. Three commercial mycotoxin binders containing hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) as the main component were used in these experiments. Feed samples with and without mycotoxin binders were pelletised with and without steam treatment. After pelletising, materials were analysed for AFB(1). Only the combination pelletising and a mixture of binders added at a total level of 1.2% had a significant effect (41% reduction) on the amount of AFB(1) determined.
Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 09/2012; 29:1959-1971. DOI:10.1080/19440049.2012.720035 · 2.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intake of theFusarium toxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), HT-2 and T-2 toxin (HT-2, T-2), 3-, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-, 15- ADON), and fusarenon-X (FUS-X) was calculated for adults, children and babies, for an area of southwest Germany and two years (1998, 1999). Estimates were based on consumption data of bread and pasta by both adults and children and of infant food by babies, reported for the German population in a study on behalf of the European Union, and on toxin contents of a total of 208 samples of these commodities. No exceeding of the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of DON, NIV and the sum of HT-2 and T-2, as stated by the EU, was found for adults (70 kg body weight (BW)) and for babies (10 kg BW), independent of year and level of consumption. For children (20 kg BW) the intake of DON exceeded the TDI in 1998 for high, and in 1999 for both mean and high consumers. For both years the intake of the sum of HT-2 and T-2 was below the TDI following mean but above this value following high consumption. The intake of NIV was far below the TDI for both levels of ingestion. The daily intake of each of the three toxins 3-, 15- ADON and FUS-X was below 0.03, 0.11 and 0.05 μg/kg/BW for adults, children and babies, respectively.
Mycotoxin Research 09/2005; 21(3):200-4. DOI:10.1007/BF02959263
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The frequent presence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in cereal-based foods and the high intake of these foods by children raises particular concerns about the relative susceptibility of this subpopulation to adverse effects evoked by this mycotoxin. We tested the hypothesis that both toxicokinetics and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression following a oral DON exposure at 5mg/kg bw differ between weanling (3-4 wk) and young adult (8-10 wk) female mice. DON was rapidly taken up with maximum plasma concentrations reaching 1.0 microg/ml in adult mice at 15 min, whereas DON levels were approximately twice as much in weanling mice at these times. DON was rapidly cleared in both weanling and adult mice with concentrations being reduced by 78% and 81% of the peak levels, respectively, after 2h. DON accumulation and clearance in spleen, liver, lung and kidney followed similar kinetics to that of plasma with tissue burdens also reaching twice that of adult mice. When TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 mRNAs in spleens (a primary source of systemic proinflammatory cytokines) were used as biomarkers of the DON's effects, expression of these mRNAs was two to three times greater in weanling than adult mouse. However, differences in proinflammatory cytokine expression were less robust or not apparent in the liver or lung. Taken together, these data suggest that young mice are modestly more susceptible than adult mice to the adverse effects of DON and that this might result from a greater toxin tissue burden.
Food and Chemical Toxicology 09/2008; 46(8):2826-31. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2008.05.016 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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