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    ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at investigating the contamination of grains, which are grown and used for animal diets by Slovene farmers. A total of 107 samples were examined for mesofilic aerobic molds and yeasts. The leading contaminants among molds were from Fusarium spp., detected in 73 samples, mostly in maize (50). In accordance with the European Feed Microbiology Organisation criteria, 68% of all tested samples were of the quality level I, with normal microbiological flora, and 9% of samples were estimated as quality level IV and not suitable for animal feed. Using liquid and gas chromatography methods, the presence of various mycotoxins (expressed as 12% of moisture content) was found in 77% of all samples; mostly deoxynivalenol (71%) in concentration of 150–14,420 µg kg, followed by zearalenone (32%, 20–640 µg kg), fumonisin B1 (31%, 10–4863 µg kg), fumonisin B2 (22%, 10–1629 µg kg), while HT-2 and T-2 toxins were found in low concentration in two samples, and aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in one sample. By statistical evaluation, significant positive correlations were noted between the presence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone as well as between fumonisin B1 and B2.
    Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 09/2010; 92(8):1551-1563. DOI:10.1080/02772241003640697 · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of selected microorganisms on mycotoxins production by moulds of the genus Fusarium, namely HT-2 and T-2 toxins. Appropriate nutritive media were inoculated with test microorganisms (Rhodotorula spp., Leuconostoc spp., Pantoea agglomerans), subsequently inoculated with Fusarium moulds, then incubated under various conditions. Content of Fusarium mycotoxins in individual samples was determined using HPLC/MS/MS. Separation of mycotoxins was performed on a C18 stationary phase column using gradient elution. Total analysis time was less than 20 minutes. In examining the effect of accompanying microflora on the production of HT-2 and T-2 toxins, a decrease in production of both mycotoxins was observed under various experimental conditions. Greatest inhibitory effect was observed in the presence of Pantoea agglomerans CCM 298 bacteria. It was found that the amount of HT-2 and T-2 toxins produced by the examined mould strains also depends on cultivation conditions and the nutritive medium used.
    Analytical Letters 05/2012; 45(7). DOI:10.1080/00032719.2011.653895 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The intake of theFusarium toxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), HT-2 and T-2 toxin (HT-2, T-2), 3-, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-, 15- ADON), and fusarenon-X (FUS-X) was calculated for adults, children and babies, for an area of southwest Germany and two years (1998, 1999). Estimates were based on consumption data of bread and pasta by both adults and children and of infant food by babies, reported for the German population in a study on behalf of the European Union, and on toxin contents of a total of 208 samples of these commodities. No exceeding of the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of DON, NIV and the sum of HT-2 and T-2, as stated by the EU, was found for adults (70 kg body weight (BW)) and for babies (10 kg BW), independent of year and level of consumption. For children (20 kg BW) the intake of DON exceeded the TDI in 1998 for high, and in 1999 for both mean and high consumers. For both years the intake of the sum of HT-2 and T-2 was below the TDI following mean but above this value following high consumption. The intake of NIV was far below the TDI for both levels of ingestion. The daily intake of each of the three toxins 3-, 15- ADON and FUS-X was below 0.03, 0.11 and 0.05 μg/kg/BW for adults, children and babies, respectively.
    Mycotoxin Research 09/2005; 21(3):200-4. DOI:10.1007/BF02959263