A ground-validated NDVI dataset for monitoring vegetation dynamics and mapping phenology in Fennoscandia and the Kola peninsula
ABSTRACT An NDVI dataset covering Fennoscandia and the Kola peninsula was created for vegetation and climate studies, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer 16-day maximum value composite data from 2000 to 2005. To create the dataset, (1) the influence of the polar night and snow on the NDVI values was removed by replacing NDVI values in winter with a pixel-specific NDVI value representing the NDVI outside the growing season when the pixel is free of snow; and (2) yearly NDVI time series were modelled for each pixel using a double logistic function defined by six parameters. Estimates of the onset of spring and the end of autumn were then mapped using the modelled dataset and compared with ground observations of the onset of leafing and the end of leaf fall in birch, respectively. Missing and poor-quality data prevented estimates from being produced for all pixels in the study area. Applying a 5 km×5 km mean filter increased the number of modelled pixels without decreasing the accuracy of the predictions. The comparison shows good agreement between the modelled and observed dates (root mean square error = 12 days, n = 108 for spring; root mean square error = 10 days, n = 26, for autumn). Fennoscandia shows a range in the onset of spring of more than 2 months within a single year and locally the onset of spring varies with up to one month between years. The end of autumn varies by one and a half months across the region. While continued validation with ground data is needed, this new dataset facilitates the detailed monitoring of vegetation activity in Fennoscandia and the Kola peninsula.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigates the ranging behavior of elephants in relation to precipitation-driven dynamics of vegetation. Movement data were acquired for five bachelors and five female family herds during three years in the Marsabit protected area in Kenya and changes in vegetation were mapped using MODIS normalized difference vegetation index time series (NDVI). In the study area, elevations of 650 to 1100 m.a.s.l experience two growth periods per year, while above 1100 m.a.s.l. growth periods last a year or longer. We find that elephants respond quickly to changes in forage and water availability, making migrations in response to both large and small rainfall events. The elevational migration of individual elephants closely matched the patterns of greening and senescing of vegetation in their home range. Elephants occupied lower elevations when vegetation activity was high, whereas they retreated to the evergreen forest at higher elevations while vegetation senesced. Elephant home ranges decreased in size, and overlapped less with increasing elevation. A recent hypothesis that ungulate migrations in savannas result from countervailing seasonally driven rainfall and fertility gradients is demonstrated, and extended to shorter-distance migrations. In other words, the trade-off between the poor forage quality and accessibility in the forest with its year-round water sources on the one hand and the higher quality forage in the low-elevation scrubland with its seasonal availability of water on the other hand, drives the relatively short migrations (the two main corridors are 20 and 90 km) of the elephants. In addition, increased intra-specific competition appears to influence the animals' habitat use during the dry season indicating that the human encroachment on the forest is affecting the elephant population.01/2014; 2(1):2. DOI:10.1186/2051-3933-2-2
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ABSTRACT: Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) datasets are growing in popularity to represent vegetation dynamics in ecological studies. Because of its multidimensional nature, it is difficult to visualise the spatial and temporal components of NDVI datasets simultaneously. This letter presents a method to display vegetation dynamics as captured by the NDVI along natural gradients and to visualise and test correlations between vegetation phenology and animal movement.International Journal of Remote Sensing 07/2008; 29(14):4277–4283. DOI:10.1080/01431160802104942 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many migrating herbivores rely on plant biomass to fuel their life cycles and have adapted to following changes in plant quality through time. The green wave hypothesis predicts that herbivorous waterfowl will follow the wave of food availability and quality during their spring migration. However, testing this hypothesis is hampered by the large geographical range these birds cover. The satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series is an ideal proxy indicator for the development of plant biomass and quality across a broad spatial area. A derived index, the green wave index (GWI), has been successfully used to link altitudinal and latitudinal migration of mammals to spatio-temporal variations in food quality and quantity. To date, this index has not been used to test the green wave hypothesis for individual avian herbivores. Here, we use the satellite-derived GWI to examine the green wave hypothesis with respect to GPS-tracked individual barnacle geese from three flyway populations (Russian n = 12, Svalbard n = 8, and Greenland n = 7). Data were collected over three years (2008-2010). Our results showed that the Russian and Svalbard barnacle geese followed the middle stage of the green wave (GWI 40-60%), while the Greenland geese followed an earlier stage (GWI 20-40%). Despite these differences among geese populations, the phase of vegetation greenness encountered by the GPS-tracked geese was close to the 50% GWI (i.e. the assumed date of peak nitrogen concentration), thereby implying that barnacle geese track high quality food during their spring migration. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the migration of individual avian herbivores has been successfully studied with respect to vegetation phenology using the satellite-derived GWI. Our results offer further support for the green wave hypothesis applying to long-distance migrants on a larger scale.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e108331. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108331 · 3.53 Impact Factor