An overview of the effects of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds on vertebrates, as documented in human and ecological epidemiology.

National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, North Carolina, USA.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews (Impact Factor: 2.5). 10/2009; 27(4):197-211. DOI: 10.1080/10590500903310047
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are primary examples of persistent organic pollutants that induce toxicity in both wildlife and humans. Over the past 200 years these compounds have been almost exclusively generated by human activity and have left a string of disasters in the wake of their accidental release. Most recently, the contamination of the Irish pork supply with dioxins resulted in an international recall of all Irish pork products. Epidemiologic data on human and ecological dioxin exposures have revealed a common pattern of biological response among vertebrate species, which is mediated through activation of the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). These AhR-mediated effects include profound consequences on the vertebrate individual exposed in early life with respect to myriad developmental endpoints including neurologic, immunologic, and reproductive parameters. Humans appear to be susceptible to these effects in a manner similar to that of the laboratory and wildlife species, which have demonstrated such outcomes. Furthermore, epidemiologic data suggest that there is little or no margin of exposure for humans with respect to these developmental effects. Given these concerns, prudent public health policy should include the continued reduction of exposures.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the influence of nano-TiO2 (1 mg L-1) on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) (46 pg L-1) bioconcentration and toxicity in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during 7 days in vivo exposure. A multimarkers approach was applied in different organs: detoxification in liver; innate immunity and pro-inflammatory response and adaptive immunity in gills and spleen; genotoxicity in peripheral erythrocytes and muscle. Bioconcentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in presence of nano-TiO2 was investigated in liver, skin and muscle as well as interaction between nanoTiO(2) and organic pollutants in artificial sea water (ASW). Nano-TiO2 negatively influenced immune response induced by 2,3,7,8-TCDD in spleen but not in gills and reduced the DNA damage induced by 2,3,7,8-TCDD in erythrocytes. nano-TiO2 did not interfere with 2,3,7,8-TCDD detoxification and bioconcentration according to the observed no interaction of the nano-TiO2 with organic pollutants in ASW.
    Environmental Pollution 01/2015; 196. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2014.09.020 · 3.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although passive sampling has been previously used for the monitoring of volatile and semi-volatile contaminants in air, there are limited data on the use of this technique coupled with bioassays based on specific biological responses. Biological responses including those mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) receptor as well as (anti-)estrogenicity and (anti-)androgenicity of samples from four Eastern European countries (Lithuania, Slovakia, Romania, and Serbia) were determined. To address the potential differences of specific toxic potencies of pollutant mixtures in ambient air in Eastern Europe, each country was characterized by a single more remote location that served to determine regional background conditions and one location in more urbanized and industrialized locations, which were defined as "impacted" areas. Besides samples from Lithuania, a significant gradient in concentrations of AhR-mediated potency from background and impacted localities was observed. Greatest potencies were measured in samples from impacted locations in Romania and Slovakia. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that were quantified accounted for 3-33 % of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents determined by use of the bioassay. No significant estrogenic potency was detected but anti-estrogenic effects were produced by air from two background locations (Lithuania, Slovakia) and three impacted locations (Lithuania, Romania, and Serbia). Anti-androgenic potency was observed in all samples. The greatest anti-estrogenic potency was observed at the background location in Slovakia. Anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic potencies of studied air samples were probably associated with compounds that are not routinely monitored. The study documents suitability of passive air sampling for the assessment of specific toxic potencies of ambient air pollutants.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 02/2014; 186(6). DOI:10.1007/s10661-014-3667-z · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Serum concentrations of environmental pollutants have been positively correlated with diabetes and metabolic syndrome in epidemiologic studies. In turn, abnormal mitochondrial function has been associated with the diseases. The relationships between these variables, however, have not been studied. We developed novel cell-based aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist bioassay system without solvent extraction process and analyzed whether low-dose circulating AhR ligands in human serum are associated with parameters of metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial function. Serum AhR ligand activities were measured as serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent (sTCDDeq) in pM using 10 μL human sera from 97 Korean participants (47 with glucose intolerance and 50 matched controls, average age of 46.6 ± 9.9 years, 53 male and 45 female). sTCDDeq were higher in participants with glucose intolerance than normal controls and were positively associated (P < 0.01) with obesity, blood pressure, serum triglyceride, and fasting glucose, but not with HDL-cholesterol. Body mass index was in a positive linear relationship with serum AhR ligands in healthy participants. When myoblast cells were incubated with human sera, ATP generating power of mitochondria became impaired in an AhR ligand concentration-dependent manner. Our results support that circulating AhR ligands may directly reduce mitochondrial function in tissues, leading to weight gain, glucose intolerance, and metabolic syndrome. Our rapid cell-based assay using minute volume of human serum may provide one of the best monitoring systems for circulating AhR ligands, good clinical biomarkers for the progress of disease and therapeutic efficacy. © 2013 BioFactors, 2013.
    BioFactors 07/2013; 39(4). DOI:10.1002/biof.1092 · 3.00 Impact Factor


Available from