Effects of Ibuprofen Topical Gel on Muscle Soreness
ABSTRACT Muscle soreness is a common symptom after novel exercise and may influence exercise adherence. This study examined the effect of an ibuprofen topical gel and the effect of age and sex on muscle soreness after a gym exercise.
One hundred and six participants completed six sets of 10 repetitions of the elbow and knee flexor muscles. Thirty-six hours after exercise, participants were randomized to apply an ibuprofen topical gel or placebo treatment to the affected muscle groups. Soreness evaluations were taken each hour for the first 6 h (36-42 h), then at 48, 60, 66, 72, 84, 90, 96, and 108 h after exercise. Subjects then returned to the laboratory after 3 wk and repeated the same study protocol with the opposite arm/leg and treatment.
We found no significant differences in soreness between the active ibuprofen gel and the placebo treatment and no difference in effectiveness between men and women or between older and younger subjects. For the placebo groups, there was no sex differences in muscle soreness; however, when the data were analyzed by dividing participants into young (18-29 yr) and old (40-65 yr) cohort, the old cohort reported significantly less soreness in response to the elbow flexion exercise than the young cohort (P < 0.01).
The results of this study suggest that the topical application of ibuprofen is not an effective treatment for muscle soreness after an unaccustomed gym exercise. Furthermore, our results show that there is no sex difference in the soreness response and that older subjects have less soreness in response to a similar exercise stimulus as young subjects.
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ABSTRACT: Scand J Caring Sci; 2012; 26; 28–37 Lateral epicondylalgia. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of interdisciplinary cooperation and treatment choice in the Swedish health care system Objective and aim: Interdisciplinary cooperation is essential to develop a broad range of knowledge and skills. The aim of this study was to describe health care professionals’ treatment choices, their cooperation with other professionals and their perceptions of potential risks regarding treatments of acute lateral epicondylalgia (LE). Design: A quantitative descriptive study design with a summative approach to qualitative analysis. Ethical issues: The ethical committee was asked verbally for approval but, as this study was performed to develop an organised way to treat LE, it did not require approval. The four ethical aspects information, consent, confidentiality and the use of the study materials were all addressed. Subjects: All orthopaedic surgeons, general practitioners, physiotherapists and occupational therapists in a county. Methods: Questionnaire with 18 dichotomous, multiple-response, multiple-choice questions and three open-ended questions were analysed using quantitative cross-tab and qualitative content analysis with summative approach. Results: The most common treatment choices were Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID), corticosteroid injections, training programmes, braces and ergonomics. Advantages from interdisciplinary cooperation were higher rated than disadvantages. The qualitative findings dealt with perceptions of interdisciplinary cooperation and resulted in three categories; right level of care, increased quality of care and decreased quality of care. Almost half of the physicians felt potential risks associated with their treatment methods. The qualitative findings dealt with perceptions of the potential risks and resulted in two categories: side effects and inadequate treatment. Study limitations: The number of responses varied because some of the respondents did not answered all of the questions. Conclusion: Interdisciplinary cooperation in the treatment of patients with acute LE benefits the patients by shortening the rehabilitation period and provides health care professionals the opportunity for an improved learning and exchanging experiences. These basic conditions must be met to improve health care quality.Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 02/2012; 26(1):28 - 37. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-6712.2011.00899.x · 0.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the associations between the tissue levels of omega-3 (N3), also known as the Omega-3 Index (N3 Index), on various clinical and quality of life outcomes in healthy young adults after heavy eccentric exercise.. To ensure an adequate number of participants with an elevated N3 index would be available for comparison to those with a lower N3 Index, a subgroup of the study participants received N3 dietary supplementation (2.7 g·d(-1)) for 30 days prior to the performance of the heavy eccentric exercise. The remaining participants received a placebo supplement for the same 30-day period. After 30 days of supplementation, participants performed an eccentric exercise routine and were then measured at baseline (time 0), 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96 hours respectively on the following outcomes; C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase. Blood lactate levels were analyzed immediately after the exercise. Functional measurements of delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), extension and torque were also analyzed. Quality of life (QOL) was measured by the quantitative questionnaire, the Profile of Mood States Questionnaire (POMS). Safety monitoring and analysis of adverse events was continuous throughout the study. Differences as demonstrated by a reduction in pain following eccentric exercise was experienced at both 72 and 96 hour time points in subjects with a higher N3 Index however there were no differences in extension or strength between the two groups. There was a significant difference in blood lactate levels (p = 0.0309) and improved emotional stability, reflected by the POMS questionnaire, in subjects with a higher N3 Index level. There was a statistically significant difference in CRP levels in subjects with a higher N3 Index level at 24 hours and a trend toward significance over 96 hours. There were no significant differences in creatine kinase levels and no reported adverse events. Subjects with a higher Omega-3 (N3) Index reported less pain related to DOMS following heavy exercise at 72 and 96 hours post-exercise. Reduced pain in the higher N3 Index Group may be due to an increased concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in the muscle cell walls, thus triggering a higher elasticity, flexibility and lower risk of physical damage to muscle tissue during exercise. Serum levels of blood lactate were lower in subjects with a high N3 Index, CRP was reduced at 24 hours and POMS scores were improved in high N3 Index subjects demonstrating better QOL. No serious adverse events were reported further supporting that omega-3 dietary supplementation is safe, bio-available and may improve athletic performance and well being in healthy young adults. Key PointsOmega-3 index (N3) is elevated after supplementation versus placebo in healthy young adultsSubjects with higher N3 index demonstrated reduced DOMS after heavy exerciseSubjects with higher N3 index reported better quality of life.Journal of sports science & medicine 03/2014; 13(1):151-6. · 0.90 Impact Factor