Effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on influenza A virus-induced mortality in female B6C3F1 mice

The Journal of Toxicological Sciences (Impact Factor: 1.29). 12/2009; 34(6):687-91. DOI: 10.2131/jts.34.687
Source: PubMed


Recent studies showed that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) affects the mammalian immune system at levels reportedly found in the general human population. It has been demonstrated that exposure to immunotoxic chemicals may diminish the host resistance of animals to various pathogenic challenges and enhance mortality. Therefore, the current study was carried out to characterize the effect of a 21 day pre-administration of zero, 5, or 25 microg PFOS/kg bw/day in female B6C3F1 mice on host resistance to influenza A virus infection. At the end of PFOS exposure, body/organ weights did not significantly change whereas PFOS distribution in blood plasma, spleen, thymus and lung was dose-dependently increased. PFOS exposure in mice resulted a significant increase in emaciation and mortality in response to influenza A virus. The effective plasma concentrations in female mice were at least several fold lower than reported mean blood PFOS levels from occupationally exposed humans, and fell in the upper range of blood concentrations of PFOS in the normal human population and in a wide range of wild animals. Hence, it should be important to clarify the precise mechanism(s) for excess mortality observed in the high dose group.

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Available from: Dr. Keerthi S. Guruge, Feb 17, 2015
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    • "Its dysfunction is usually associated with diminished responsiveness to antigens and increased susceptibility to infection [31]. The bioaccumulation of PFOS in the spleen has been previously reported in rodents [17] [32], and several studies have shown that PFOS-induced immunologic outcomes in the spleen involve reduction in weight, structural damages, change in cellular composition, and inflammation [19] [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant that is used worldwide and is continuously being detected in biota and the environment, thus presenting potential threats to the ecosystem and human health. Although PFOS is highly immunotoxic, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. The present study examined PFOS-induced immunotoxicity in the mouse spleen and explored its underlying mechanisms by gene expression profiling. Oral exposure of male BALB/c mice for three weeks followed by one-week recovery showed that a 10 mg/kg/day PFOS exposure damaged the splenic architecture, inhibited T-cell proliferation in response to mitogen, and increased the percentages of T helper (CD3(+)CD4(+)) and cytotoxic T (CD3(+)CD8(+)) cells, despite the decrease in the absolute number of these cells. A delayed type of PFOS immunotoxicity was observed, which mainly occurred during the recovery period. Global gene expression profiling of mouse spleens and QRT-PCR analyses suggest that PFOS inhibited the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, and upregulated those in TCR signaling, calcium signaling, and p38/MAPK signaling pathways. Western blot analysis confirmed that the expressions of CAMK4, THEMIS, and CD3G, which were involved in the upregulated pathways, were induced upon PFOS exposure. Acute PFOS exposure modulated calcium homoeostasis in splenocytes. These results indicate that PFOS exposure can activate TCR signaling and calcium ion influx, which provides a clue for the potential mechanism of PFOS immunotoxicity. The altered signaling pathways by PFOS treatment as revealed in the present study might facilitate in better understanding PFOS immunotoxicity and explain the association between immune disease and PFOS exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemico-biological interactions 08/2015; 240:84-93. DOI:10.1016/j.cbi.2015.07.015 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    • "Peden-Adams et al. (2008) reported that serum concentrations of PFOS associated with the LOEL (lowest observed effect level) for suppression of humoral immunity were 91.5 ng/ml for males and 666 ng/ml for females. Additionally, PFOS exposure (5 or 25 ␮g/kg PFOS/kg/day) suppressed immunity to influenza A infection in mice without altering body or lymphoid organ weights, resulting in significant increases in emaciation and mortality (Guruge et al., 2009). The pesticide sulfluramid, which is rapidly metabolized to PFOS, also has been demonstrated to target T-dependent, IgM antibody production in mice at exposure levels 10-fold lower than overtly toxic doses (Peden-Adams et al., 2007), further confirming the immune system as a sensitive target of PFC toxicity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been recognized as an important class of environmental contaminants commonly detected in blood samples of both wildlife and humans. These compounds have been in use for more than 60 years as surface treatment chemicals, polymerization aids, and surfactants. They possess a strong carbon-fluorine bond, which leads to their environmental persistence. There is evidence from both epidemiology and laboratory studies that PFCs may be immunotoxic, affecting both cell-mediated and humoral immunity. Reported effects of PFCs include decreased spleen and thymus weights and cellularity, reduced specific antibody production, reduced survival after influenza infection, and altered cytokine production. Immunosuppression is a critical effect associated with exposure to PFCs, as it has been reported to reduce antibody responses to vaccination in children. Mounting evidence suggests that immunotoxicity in experimental animals can occur at serum concentrations below, within, or just above the reported range for highly exposed humans and wildlife. Considering bioaccumulation and exposure to multiple PFCs, the risk of immunotoxicity for humans and wildlife cannot be discounted. This review will discuss current and recently published work exploring the immunomodulatory effects of PFCs in experimental animals and humans.
    Toxicology Letters 10/2014; 230(2). DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.01.038 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    • "PFOS and PFOA exposure have been shown to decrease T-cell-dependent IgM antibody responses in mice (Dewitt et al., 2008, Peden-Adams et al., 2008). PFOS also decreased T-independent IgM production and decreased host resistance to influenza A (Peden-Adams et al., 2008; Guruge et al., 2009). These immune effects have recently been seen in human studies as well. "
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluorinated compounds, such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), have been shown to alter various immune functions suggesting they are immunotoxic. This study assessed the effects of PFOS and PFOA on interleukin (IL)-2 production in the human Jurkat T-cell line and PFOS in healthy human primary T cells. Jurkat cells were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA)/phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), anti CD-3/anti CD-28, or anti CD-3, and dosed with 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 50, 75, or 100 µg ml−1 PFOS or 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, or 10 µg ml−1 PFOA. Jurkat cells stimulated with PHA/PMA or anti CD-3 exhibited decreased IL-2 production beginning at 50 µg PFOS ml−1 and 5 µg PFOS ml−1 respectively, but stimulation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 resulted in no changes compared with the control. Addition of the PPAR-alpha antagonist GW6471 to PFOS-dosed cells stimulated with PHA/PMA resulted in decreases in IL-2 production starting at 50 µg PFOS ml−1, which suggests PFOS affected T-cell IL-2 production via PPAR-alpha-independent mechanisms. Exposure to PFOA, PFOA + GW6471, or PFOS + PFOA in Jurkat cells resulted in no significant differences in IL-2 production. In vitro dosing studies using healthy primary human CD4+ T cells were consistent with the Jurkat results. These data demonstrated that PFOA did not impact IL-2 production, but PFOS suppressed IL-2 production in both a human cell line and human primary cells at dose levels within the high end of the human exposure range. A decrease in IL-2 production is characteristic of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and should be further investigated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 07/2014; 35(5). DOI:10.1002/jat.3037 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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